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SheetsCon 2020: Lessons Learned Running An Online Conference For 6,700 People

SheetsCon

The inaugural edition of SheetsCon — the world’s first dedicated, online conference for Google Sheets — happened on 11th & 12th March 2020.

It was the first time I’ve tried running an online event like this so I had no idea how it would turn out.

It was a big experiment…

…and I’m delighted (and relieved) that it went really well!

Over 6,700 registered for this online conference and we had thousands log in to watch the livestream presentations.

We had 11 world-class experts talk about how they craft solutions using Google Sheets and G Suite.

SheetsCon Replays are available here.

SheetsCon 2020 Online Conference

Online Conference Stats

  • 6,754 registered attendees
  • 3,830 registered attendees (57%) tuned in during the event
  • Day 1: between 800 and 1,500 watching the livestream
  • Day 2: between 650 and 1,000 watching the livestream
SheetsCon stats
Our event registration stats in the backend dashboard (click to enlarge)

What elements of an in-person conference did we have at SheetsCon?

To understand what the SheetsCon event looked like, watch this 2-minute intro video that we used to help people navigate the event:

The event platform we used recreates the elements of an in-person conference online, so we had a main stage, networking, roundtables, an expo hall and chat. The engagement was super high.

To get a fuller flavor of SheetsCon 2020, have a watch of the wrap-up presentation, which summarizes the event and key takeaways:

Presentations on the main stage

Watch replays of all the SheetsCon presentations here.

Day 1

Day 2

Polls

We ran a number of polls throughout the event, related to talks happening on the main stage. It was interesting to gauge audience in real-time and provided useful feedback.

SheetsCon Polls
(Click to enlarge in new tab)

Networking

One of the unique features of the Hopin platform we used was the networking feature.

Networking is one of the most important parts of going to an in-person conference for many people, so I was really excited to have this feature available for this online conference.

It’s a super interesting idea.

If you choose to participate, you get paired up with another random attendee and given a limited time to video chat, one-on-one. If it’s a productive conversation then you can click to exchange contact details to connect.

In practice, it received a mixed reception.

Many people did not want to connect with other random attendees and be on camera. Some experienced technical difficulties that prevented them getting a solid connection. Others tried but found the connections to be too random to be useful.

However, many tried it and loved it!

We could have improved the networking feature by having people network within groups (e.g. educators networking with other educators) and better educating people about how it works.

Some of the feedback we received for this part of the event was very positive:

+ One of my favorite parts of the whole conference! Great addition!

+ Very good. Talked to folks from all over the world. Made a work connection.

+ Loved getting to know people & loved how it forced conversations to be short.

Whereas for others it didn’t really work:

+ It was just ok. The experience felt very random and impersonal.

+ Wasn’t fond of it tbh. I didn’t like the randomness or how it cut off after speaking to someone.

+ Wasn’t comfortable for me, and I didn’t have a camera.

We have some areas to work on to improve the execution for SheetsCon 2021 but I think it will become a really valuable part of our online conferences in the future.

Roundtable Sessions

We ran three roundtable sessions on day two of SheetsCon, covering 1) Google Sheets for Educators, 2) Google Sheets Tips and Tricks and 3) the Apps Script Zone.

These roundtable discussions were open from 3pm to 4pm on day 2, between presentations on the main stage.

Each roundtable discussion had anywhere between 4 and 15 people speaking on the screen and another 80 – 100 listening and participating in the chat.

It was so cool to see these roundtable sessions come to life and happen simultaneously. The community came together and self-regulated these sessions, which were open to any attendees.

Online Conference roundtable discussion room
The Apps Script Zone roundtable discussion room at SheetsCon 2020 (click to enlarge)
Online Conference roundtable discussion room for educators
Google Sheets for Educators roundtable discussion room (click to enlarge)

There was a fourth roundtable session — Google Sheets for Digital Marketers — that didn’t gain any traction.

My overall impression of the roundtables were that they were really popular but I need to have some more direction for next year. I think having a moderator to run each session would fix this.

The feedback on the roundtable sessions was overwhelmingly positive and basically just confirmed my thoughts above:

+ Lots of sharing information and ideas.

+ Very good. Great thoughts and feedback and discussion.

+ It was good, I was able to talk about my knowledge on getting google sheets addons approved in the g suite marketplace.

+ It was a bit confusing without having a moderator leading the discussion and topics, etc.

+ I enjoyed the roundtables – I was only an observer but this allowed me to pop in and out of rooms as the discussions progressed around topics I was interested in and at levels that were appropriate for my knowledge base

+ It was actually interesting. Intimidating but really cool. Very much like in person meeting people at a conference

Expo Hall

SheetsCon 2020 brought all the aspects of a conference online.

We had an expo hall (a page within our SheetsCon event) that showcased our sponsors.

Each sponsor had their own booth (page) with a dedicated chat window and the option to have a live video session (e.g. for product demos, answering customer questions etc.) or an on-demand promo video.

The vendors that ran live sessions saw significantly more engagement than the vendors that only had an on-demand YouTube video.

At one stage, I browsed around the Expo Hall and saw four of the vendors running live software demos simultaneously. Much as the roundtable discussions rooms came to life, it was another eye-opening moment for me as an organizer to see the community in action.

Vendor live demos at SheetsCon 2020
Vendor live demos at SheetsCon 2020, featuring Sheetgo, Tiller Money and Analytics Canvas (click to enlarge)

We got some great feedback on the vendor booths, almost all super positive with some constructive critique that will help us improve next year:

+ I am glad the platform had this option. It is great to learn about the apps and add ons.

+ Some were obviously better than others but I was impressed to see how the platform worked.

+ When there was a live person there, it was great. When it was just a video, not so much.

+ Amazing! My two favorites were interactive and applied to me best. SheetsGo were the most interactive, they were there 100% of the time during breaks, and even contributing in main stage chat!

+ It was fun and unique process.

+ I preferred the demo and interactive ones, rather than just watching a youtube video. it would be great if they could show you the video and also advertise what time they would be giving a demo or available to chat.

I think one obvious improvement for next year would be to give each vendor a time for their product demos, so that people could plan to visit the booth when it was live.

Thanks to the following companies that supported SheetsCon 2020:

SheetsCon 2020 online conference sponsors

Swag Bags

To increase engagement and strengthen the SheetsCon brand, we created swag bags to give away during the conference, consisting of t-shirts and stickers:

SheetsCon Swag Bags

To win one, attendees had to either visit at least 5 of the vendor booths or share something about SheetsCon on social media with the hashtag #SheetsCon2020.

We used a Google Form to collect entries. We had hundreds of entries but only had 25 swag bags to give away.

The t-shirts were so popular we created a quick pop-up shop for people who wanted to buy them (sadly only available in the US). You can still purchase the SheetsCon t-shirts here:

Green SheetsCon T-shirt

Blue SheetsCon T-shirt

Our Online Conference Technology Partner: Hopin

We partnered with the online conference platform Hopin to run this event.

From their website:

“Hopin is the first all-in-one live online events platform where attendees can learn, interact, and connect with people from anywhere in the world.”

That’s exactly what SheetsCon was all about, which is why Hopin were the perfect platform for the vision I had for SheetsCon.

Would I use Hopin again?

Absolutely! 100%. I’m super impressed with the platform.

It wasn’t perfect, but it’s a new category of software. The core concept is AMAZING! I have total faith that the team will continue to improve an already fantastic product.

Online Conference Timeline

3 – 6 months out (October – December 2019)

The idea for an online conference happened around 6 months prior to the event, in October 2019. I was watching a demo webinar from Hopin and was seriously impressed with the software.

I thought about my 2020 plans and really wanted to include more live elements to my training programs.

Thus, SheetsCon was born.

I bought the SheetsCon.com domain on the 29th October and bought a WordPress hosting account with GoDaddy on 11th November 2019.

Through November, I planned out the event and made shortlists of possible speakers, session topics and vendors. I reached out to them in November to get people on board.

Here’s an example email I sent out to potential speakers to see if they were interested:

Hey [Name],

How are you?

I want to share a new project with you and hopefully get you interested in being part of it.

Early next year I’m running SheetsCon — a 2-day online conference for all things Google Sheets.

I’d love for you to be one of the speakers.

My vision is to create an online experience that brings together thousands of Google Sheets users from diverse industries, to learn from experts (like you!), network with other professionals and be inspired by the magic of Google Sheets.

It’s completely online and will happen on the 5 – 6th February 2020.

In addition to sessions on the main channel (which will be like a series of webinars), there’ll be networking rooms, sponsor rooms and panels.

I’d love to have you talk about [XYZ].

Are you interested in hearing more? I’d love to jump on a call and tell you more.

Thanks,
Ben

As you can see, I was planning on a February event date at this point in time.

However, I got sick for a week in December and decided that there was too much to do to meet the early February deadline.

2 months out (January 2020)

I made the decision to delay SheetsCon by a month and move it to 11th/12th March 2020.

So far I’d only confirmed speakers, so it was a relatively small number of people to check in with and thankfully they all agreed to the new dates.

This is the email I sent out to announce the date change:

Hi [Name],

Quick update on SheetsCon 2020, the online Google Sheets conference.

Unfortunately, I got sick at the end of the year so the site is not where it needs to be yet.

I’ve moved the date to the 11th/12th March. Are you still available?

I’ll be in touch soon with more updates. Thanks again for being involved!

Best wishes for 2020!

Ben

1 month out (February 2020)

Logo

I created a logo design contest on 99designs to create a better logo for SheetsCon. I was really pleased with how this turned out.

Here’s the story of how the logo came to be and here’s the final logo:

SheetsCon

Marketing

I announced SheetsCon publicly to my email list, on my website and on social media. I sent all the traffic to the SheetsCon.com from where people could sign up.

The vendors also began sharing with their lists and social channels and this really drove a lot of sign-ups.

The momentum stalled when my whole family got the flu for a week, so I lost a lot of time. Not a major setback though, as everything was still on track at this stage.

Throughout the month, I was onboarding new vendors and doing SheetsCon calls to show vendors how the platform works and what to expect.

I also did at least one practice call with each speaker to show them how the platform worked and what the workflow was like on the day. We also discussed session topics with and ironed out any issues (e.g. ensuring that Google Sheet formulas or code was large enough to be legible on the screen).

I continued to put out information onto Twitter (e.g. this thread) and occasionally on LinkedIn.

1 week to go (March 2nd week)

Disaster! I got sick again for 4 days, urgh!

I had to postpone a bunch of practice run-through calls and had still not prepared my keynote. This illness was a setback for sure, but thank goodness it didn’t come the following week during SheetsCon.

3 days to go

All hands on deck!

My wife joined me full-time this week as the SheetsCon assistant.

I spent sometime creating and practicing my opening keynote, as well as getting the final pieces in place for the event. I created several process docs (Google Docs) for tasks on the day, key info for speakers and vendors, swag bag plans, etc.

We worked from 8am to midnight during the SheetsCon week, so it was a pretty intense week!

This week was also the tipping point for the coronavirus here in the U.S., where public opinion changed, schools began to close, events were cancelled and life changed seemingly overnight.

Coronavirus wasn’t on anyone’s radar when I began planning an online conference, so although it looked prescient from the outside, I always envisioned SheetsCon as an online conference. It allowed us to run the event without any major concerns or changes to the program.

SheetsCon Event (11th/12th March 2020)

Everyone has a plan ’till they get punched in the mouth. – Mike Tyson

The event began with almost 1,500 people active on the SheetsCon event site and watching the opening keynote livestream. The energy was palpable. The chat was going pretty crazy!

I was somewhat insulated as the speaker as I focussed on my presentation.

Part way through my opening keynote, we suffered some technology issues and my livestream went down for about 15 mins. Not the best start and for a while I was oblivious! However, my wife was working with the Hopin team (who were on hand and super helpful) to get things up and running again. My wife was also handling all the comments in the sidebar chat and keeping things positive.

It was a really intense (and stressful) first hour. But we survived and everything was solid thereafter. There were no other major snafus at all.

The event ran for 2 days, which went by in a flash.

Post-event activities

The work never stops!

As the dust settled on the live event, I had a long checklist (around 30+ items) to work through to wrap up SheetsCon.

Surveys for feedback from attendees and sponsors. Downloading all the presentation recordings and putting them together into a replay package with the accompanying slides and templates. Preparing and delivering swag bags to winners.

And of course, planning for SheetsCon 2021 begins!

What went well?

  • More people than we expected
  • Really great community with lots of energy and enthusiasm throughout
  • 11 fantastic speakers on a variety of topics and skill levels
  • The full conference experience online thanks to our technology partner, Hopin
  • Amazing to see roundtable discussions happening simultaneously, with up to 15 speakers and hundreds watching in each room
  • Likewise, amazing to see live demos from at least 4 of the vendors happening simultaneously
  • 89.5% of the attendees plan to return (based on 330 post-event survey responses)
  • 10.0% said they will “maybe” return
  • Only 0.5% said they don’t plan to return (2 responses)

We had really fantastic and supportive feedback from attendees too:

+ Overall it was a great conference. Looking forward to seeing what you add for next year.

+ THANK YOU Ben, and the rest of your team who brought this to us. Events such as this are so extremely helpful!!! 🙂

+ This con was brilliant!! It really got the fire rolling in terms of ideas and applications of sheets. SO happy I can across it and will most definitely be attending next year and every year following!!

+ Thanks for all of your hard work! It was a great first time event. Can’t wait to see how it grows in the future.

+ Thanks for battling through the glitches at the beginning. It was awesome to be a part of the whole thing! I’m super stoked to see what next year’s event brings.

What we need to improve

For a first event I think it went extremely well, but of course there are plenty of things to fix for next year:

  • Better explanations of how the various features work
  • At least one other person to help in the build-up and during the event
  • Moderators for each of the roundtable discussion rooms to lead the conversations
  • Group topics into tracks and/or skill levels
  • Better communication about the exact start time (confusing with the time difference)
  • Potentially making templates and slides from the speakers available ahead of time
  • Better way of communicating with speakers whilst presentation is in progress (e.g. to alert speaker they forgot to share their screen). We used text messaging in the end.
  • T-shirts and merch available throughout the conference and globally, not just the U.S.
  • More structured marketing campaign and possibly paid ads
  • I’ll try not to get sick 3 times (!!) in the 3 months leading up to the event
  • Having more swag bags and merch for attendees 🙂

I’m already thinking about improvements for the next event and can’t wait to bring SheetsCon 2021 to life.

How much did SheetsCon cost?

Here’s a breakdown of the expenses for SheetsCon:

  • Domain name purchase – $156 (included several SheetsCon domain variations)
  • Web hosting for SheetsCon – $131
  • WordPress theme – $79
  • Logo design on 99designs – $599
  • Fee to use Hopin platform – Redacted*
  • Swag bag t-shirts – $535
  • Swag bag stickers – $110
  • Postage for swag bags – $250
  • TOTAL – $1,860*

* Does not include the fee we paid to Hopin (I’m not sharing this publicly as it varies based on your unique situation)

What about revenue?

SheetsCon was free to attend. (The plan is to make it free to attend next year too!)

I also waived sponsor fees this year. I worked with a select few vendors as an experiment with the expectation that they would promote the event through their marketing channels.

I have a lot of ideas for how to monetize next year’s event, SheetsCon 2021.

Whilst SheetsCon 2020 did not make any direct revenue, it was still tremendously beneficial to my business.

Benefits From Running An Online Conference

If I didn’t make any money from SheetsCon, what did I get from it?

A ton!

It was a lot of work, but it was a really fun and energizing two days.

I developed a lot of really good relationships with speakers, vendors and attendees as a result of this online conference.

It was a huge growth and learning experience for me too, as I’ve never put together an event like this.

It established the SheetsCon brand and laid the foundations for future, bigger, events.

It certainly raised my profile within the G Suite and Google Sheets communities.

And it resulted in about 3,500 new and high-quality leads. These are potential future customers for my online training business and future SheetsCon event attendees. For people on my mailing list I typically see a 1 – 2% conversion rate, so applying that here would look something like this: 2% * 3,500 = 70 new buyers @ $299 = $20,930 future revenue (this is a hypothetical illustration).

All in all, it was totally worth it.

See you at SheetsCon 2021!

SheetsCon

Apps Script V8 Runtime Is Here! What Does That Mean?

In February 2020, Google announced the launch of the V8 runtime for Apps Script, which is the same runtime environment that powers Chrome. It allows us to take advantage of all the modern JavaScript features.

A runtime environment is the engine that interprets your code and executes the instructions.

Historically, Apps Script used a runtime environment called Rhino, which locked Apps Script to an older version of JavaScript that excluded modern JavaScript features.

But no more!

In this guide, we’ll explore the basics of the new V8 runtime, highlighting the features relevant for beginner-to-intermediate level Apps Script users.

Enabling The Apps Script V8 Runtime

When you open the Apps Script editor, you’ll see a yellow notification bar at the top of your editor window prompting you to enable V8:

Enable V8 runtime in Apps Script

If you don’t see this notification, you can select Run > Enable new Apps Script runtime powered by V8

Enable V8 runtime in Apps Script

Save your script to complete the enabling process.

If you need to return to the old version (in the unlikely scenario your script isn’t compatible with the new V8 runtime) then you can switch back to the old Rhino runtime editor.

Select Run > Disable new Apps Script powered by V8.


New Logging In The Apps Script V8 Runtime

The new V8 runtime logger shows both the Logger.log and console.log results for the most recent execution under the View > Logs menu.

Previously the console results where only accessible via the Stackdriver Logging service.

Here’s an example showing the Logger and console syntax (notice Logger is capitalized and console is not, it matters):

function loggerExample() {
  Logger.log("Hello, world from Logger.log!");
  console.log("Hello, world from console.log!")
}

The output in our logger window (accessed via View > Logs) shows both of these results:

Logger and console logs in V8


Modern JavaScript Features

There are a lot of exciting new features available with modern JavaScript. They look strange at first but don’t panic!

There’s no need to start using them all immediately.

Just keep doing what you’re doing, writing your scripts and when you get a chance, try out one of the new features. See if you can incorporate it in your code and you’ll gradually find ways to use them.

Here are the new V8 features in a vague order of ascending difficulty:

Multi-line comments

We can now create multi-line strings more easily by using a back tick syntax:

// new V8 method
var newString = `This is how we do 
multi-line strings now.`;

This is the same syntax as template literals and it greatly simplifies creating multi-line strings.

Previously each string was restricted to a single line. To make multi-line comments we had to use a plus-sign to join them together.

// old method
var oldString = 'This is how we used\n'
+ 'to do multi-line strings.'; 

Default Parameters

The Apps Script V8 runtime lets us now specify default values for parameters in the function definition.

In this example, the function addNumbers simply logs the value of x + y.

If we don’t tell the function what the values of x and y are, it uses the defaults we’ve set (so x is 1 and y is 2).

function addNumbers(x = 1, y = 2) {
  console.log(x + y);
}

When we run this function, the result in the Logger is 3.

What’s happening is that the function assigns the default values to x and y since we don’t specify values for x and y anywhere else in the function.

let Keyword

The let statement declares a variable that operates locally within a block.

Consider this fragment of code, which uses the let keyword to define x and assign it the variable of 1. Inside the block, denoted by the curly brackets {…}, x is redefined and re-assigned to the value of 2.

let x = 1;
  
{
  let x = 2;
  console.log(x); // output of 2 in the logs
}
  
console.log(x); // output of 1 in the logs

The output of this in the logs is the values 2 and 1, because the second console.log is outside the block, so x has the value of 1.

Note, compare this with using the var keyword:

var x = 1;
  
{
  var x = 2;
  console.log(x); // output of 2 in the logs
}
  
console.log(x); // output of 2 in the logs

Both log results give the output of 2, because the value of x is reassigned to 2 and this applies outside the block because we’re using the var keyword. (Variables declared with var keyword in non-strict mode do not have block scope.)

const Keyword

The const keyword declares a variable, called a constant, whose value can’t be changed. Constants are block scoped like the let variable example above.

For example, this code:

const x = 1;
x = 2; 
console.log(x);

gives an error when we run it because we’re not allowed to reassign the value of a constant once it’s been declared:

const keyword error

Similarly, we can’t declare a const keyword without also assigning it a value. So this code:

const x;

also gives an error when we try to save our script file:

Apps Script V8 runtime const error message

Spread syntax

Suppose we have the following array of data:

var arr = [[1,2],[3.4],[5,6]];

It’s an array of arrays, so it’s exactly the format of the data we get from our Sheets when we use the getRange().getValues() method.

Sometimes we want to flatten arrays, so we can loop over all the elements. Well, in V8, we can use the spread operator (three dots … ), like so:

var flatArr = [].concat(...arr);

This results in a new array: [1,2,3,4,5,6]

Template Literals

Template literals are a way to embed expressions into strings to create more complex statements.

One example of template literals is to embed expressions within normal strings like this:

let firstName = 'Ben';
let lastName = 'Collins';
console.log(`Full name is ${firstName} ${lastName}`);

The logs show “Full name is Ben Collins”

In this case, we embed a placeholder between the back ticks, denoted by the dollar sign with curly brackets ${ some_variable }, which gets passed to the function for evaluation.

The multi-line strings described above are another example of template literals.

Arrow Functions

Arrow functions provide a compact way of writing functions.

Arrow Function Example 1

Here’s a very simple example:

const double = x => x * 2;

This expression creates a function called double, which takes an input x and returns x multiplied by 2.

This is functionally equivalent to the long-hand function:

function double(x) {
  return x * 2;
}

If we call either of these examples and pass in the value 10, we’ll get the answer 20 back.

Arrow Function Example 2

In the same vein, here’s another arrow function, this time a little more advanced.

Firstly, define an array of numbers from 1 to 10:

const arr = [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9.10];

This arrow function will create a new array, called evenArr, consisting of only the even numbers.

const evenArr = arr.filter(el => (el % 2 === 0));
console.log(evenArr);

The filter only returns values that pass the conditional test: (el % 2 === 0) which translates as remainder is 0 when dividing by 2 i.e. the even numbers.

The output in the logs is [2,4,6,8]:

Apps Script V8 runtime arrow function logs

Other Advanced Features

There are more advanced features in V8 that are not covered in this post, including:

I’m still exploring them and will create resources for them in the future.


Migrating Scripts To Apps Script V8 Runtime

The majority of scripts should run in the new V8 runtime environment without any problems. In all likelihood, the only adjustment you’ll make is to enable the new V8 runtime in the first place.

However, there are some incompatibilities that may cause your script to fail or behave differently.

But for beginner to intermediate Apps Scripters, writing relatively simple scripts to automate workflows in G Suite, it’s unlikely that you’ll have any problems.

You can read more about migrating scripts to the V8 runtime and incompatibilities in the detailed documentation from Google.


Other Apps Script V8 Runtime Resources

V8 Runtime Overview

ES 6 Features for Google Apps Script: Template Literals

ES6 Features for Google Apps Script: Arrow Functions

Here’s a good explanation of the V8 runtime from Digital Inspiration

The new V8 runtime offers significant performance improvements over the old Rhino editor. Your code will run much, much faster! Here’s a deep dive: Benchmark: Loop for Array Processing using Google Apps Script with V8

Unpivot In Google Sheets With Formulas, Or How To Turn Wide Data Into Tall Data

Unpivot in Google Sheets is a method to turn “wide” tables into “tall” tables, which are more convenient for analysis.

Suppose we have a wide table like this:

Wide Data Table

We want to transform that data — unpivot it — into the tall format that is the way databases store data:

Unpviot in Google Sheets

But how do we unpivot our data like that?

It turns out it’s quite hard.

Much harder than going the other direction, pivoting tall data into wide data tables.

This article looks at how to do it using formulas, which is challenging and obtuse.

The formulas are complex and difficult to read so it’s hard to recommend this method in a production setting.

But it’s a fascinating look at advanced formulas in Google Sheets and I’m certain you’ll learn something new along the way.

If you need to do this in a production setting, then you might want to consider using the Apps Script code or example sheet from the first answer of this Stack Overflow post.

But if you’re ready for some complex formulas, let’s dive in…

Unpivot in Google Sheets – Solution 1

We’ll use the wide dataset shown in the first image at the top of this post, in Sheet1 of our Google Sheet.

Remember, what we’re trying to do is transform the wide data table into the tall data table. The output of our formulas should look like the second image in this post.

In other words, we need to create 16 rows to account for the different pairings of Customer and Product, e.g. Customer 1 + Product 1, Customer 1 + Product 2, etc. all the way up to Customer 4 + Product 4.

Of course, we’ll employ the Onion Method to understand these formulas.

Template

Click here to open the Unpivot in Google Sheets template

Feel free to make your own copy (File > Make a copy…).

(If you can’t open the file, it’s likely because your G Suite account prohibits opening files from external sources. Talk to your G Suite administrator or try opening the file in an incognito browser.)

Customers Column

To start, create a second Sheet and add a simple header row in row 1, with “Customer”, “Product” and “Value” in cells A1, B1 and C1 respectively.

Let’s create an array formula to populate the customers column. In cell A2, enter this:

=COUNTA(Sheet1!$1:$1)

This formula gives the count of the number of columns — 4 — in our wide dataset (assuming cell A1 in our original dataset is empty, per the first image of this post).

QUICK NOTE: when copy-pasting these formulas into your own Google Sheets, paste them directly into the formula bar to avoid any issues.

Similarly, this next formula would give the count of the number of rows — 3 — in our wide dataset (again assuming cell A1 in our original dataset is empty, per the first image of this post).

=COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)

Multiplying these two together gives us the number of values in our table — 12 — which corresponds to the number of rows we’ll need in our new tall data table:

=COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)*COUNTA(Sheet1!$1:$1)

So let’s create those 12 rows!

Wrap this with the SEQUENCE function, starting from 1:

=SEQUENCE(COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)*COUNTA(Sheet1!$1:$1),1)

Now divide that by the count of rows:

=SEQUENCE(COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)*COUNTA(Sheet1!$1:$1),1)/COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)

Hmm, it gives an answer of 0.3333333 but we’ve lost our 12 rows…

…so turn it into an Array Formula silly!

=ArrayFormula(SEQUENCE(COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)*COUNTA(Sheet1!$1:$1),1)/COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A))

Ah, that’s better. “But how does it help us?” I hear you ask.

Let’s round all those decimals up to the nearest integer, like so:

=ArrayFormula(ROUNDUP(SEQUENCE(COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)*COUNTA(Sheet1!$1:$1),1)/COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)))

Nice!

We now have the column vector 1,1,1,2,2,2,3,3,3,4,4,4 with repeating positions, which is exactly what we needed.

For the moment, leave this formula alone and let’s move to cell B2 to construct the next piece. We want to create a table of the column headings that we can “lookup” with those repeating positions. Don’t worry, it’ll make more sense in a moment!

Ok, so start with this formula in B2:

=ArrayFormula(COLUMN(Sheet1!$1:$1))

And try this formula in B3:

=ArrayFormula(Sheet1!$1:$1)

Can you see what we’re doing yet?

Let’s combine these in cell B2 as follows:

=ArrayFormula({COLUMN(Sheet1!$1:$1);Sheet1!$1:$1})

and delete the formula in cell B3.

The output should look the same, but it’s created with a single formula.

Now we can use the HLOOKUP function to lookup those positions into this data array we’ve created.

Change our formula in cell A2 to:

=ArrayFormula(HLOOKUP(ROUNDUP(SEQUENCE(COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)*COUNTA(Sheet1!$1:$1),1)/COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)),{COLUMN(Sheet1!$1:$1);Sheet1!$1:$1},2))

It’s nearly right, but the answer is offset slightly. Hmm.

Ah ok, it’s that blank cell in A1 of the original data that we didn’t account for. Our repeating positions really start from 2. It’s a simple fix to just add 1 to them.

=ArrayFormula(HLOOKUP(ROUNDUP(SEQUENCE(COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)*COUNTA(Sheet1!$1:$1),1)/COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A))+1,{COLUMN(Sheet1!$1:$1);Sheet1!$1:$1},2))

That’s the customers populated in column 1.

What about the products in column 2?

Products Column

Well, it’s an almost identical formula, so I’ll just share it here and leave it to the reader to use the Onion Method to build it in steps.

Actually, no I won’t, that’s just me being lazy. Let’s walk through it together.

It’s a similar idea, but it looks a little different because we do a vertical lookup.

So, if you haven’t already, clear out cells B2 and B3.

Start with this SEQUENCE formula in cell B2:

=SEQUENCE(COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)*COUNTA(Sheet1!$1:$1),1)

This time we want a sequence that looks like 1,2,3,1,2,3,1,2,3 etc. i.e. repeating. This calls for the MOD squad, I mean MOD function.

=MOD(SEQUENCE(COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)*COUNTA(Sheet1!$1:$1),1),COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A))

Oops, make it an Array Formula:

=ArrayFormula(MOD(SEQUENCE(COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)*COUNTA(Sheet1!$1:$1),1),COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)))

Ah, that’s better. But it gives 1,2,0,1,2,0 etc. so it’s not quite right. Fix the ordering by subtracting 1 from the dividend of the MOD function:

=ArrayFormula(MOD(SEQUENCE(COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)*COUNTA(Sheet1!$1:$1),1)-1,COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)))

Now we have 0,1,2,0,1,2 etc.

Add 2 to this to get the repeating positions we want 2,3,4,2,3,4 (again, we start from 2 to account for the blank cell in A1 of our original dataset).

=ArrayFormula(MOD(SEQUENCE(COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)*COUNTA(Sheet1!$1:$1),1)-1,COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A))+2)

Leave this formula sitting pretty for a moment, and begin a new one in cell C2. Build an array for the vertical lookup with this formula (feel free to build in steps, I’m jumping straight to the array version):

=ArrayFormula({ROW(Sheet1!$A:$A),Sheet1!$A:$A})

Now we can combine this into the formula in cell B2, using a VLOOKUP:

=ArrayFormula(VLOOKUP(MOD(SEQUENCE(COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)*COUNTA(Sheet1!$1:$1),1)-1,COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A))+2,{ROW(Sheet1!$A:$A),Sheet1!$A:$A},2))

Woohoo!

There’s our products in repeating order and paired correctly with the customer column.

That leaves the values associated with each pair.

Values Column

Thankfully this is much simpler, using a standard INDEX / MATCH / MATCH construction to look up each pair.

The row offset in the INDEX function is found by matching the product with the product categories in column A of our original data, i.e.

=MATCH(B2,Sheet1!$A:$A,0)

The column offset is found by matching the customers, i.e.

=MATCH(A2,Sheet1!$1:$1,0)

Plug these both into the INDEX function:

=INDEX(Sheet1!$1:$1000,MATCH(B2,Sheet1!$A:$A,0),MATCH(A2,Sheet1!$1:$1,0))

which gives the value of 61 for the first pair, Customer 1 and Product 1.

Drag this formula down the column to fill in all the rows.

“Wait, what? Where’s the array formula? Can’t I just wrap this INDEX / MATCH / MATCH with an array formula wrapper?”

No bueno, I’m afraid.

The INDEX function does not play well with the Array Formula, so this option cannot be turned into an array formula.

Be patient, in solution 2 we’ll generalize this to use an array formula, but we have to approach it in a different, more verbose way.

Unpivot in Google Sheets – Solution 2

Leaving the Customer and Product array formula columns well alone, let’s focus purely on the Values column.

We left solution 1 with a somewhat unsatisfactory INDEX / MATCH / MATCH formula for the values that, ahem, had to be dragged down the column — oh the horror! — because it wasn’t an array formula.

Gasp! We don’t like such manual work.

So let’s create an array formula to grab the values we need.

Think of the standard VLOOKUP:

=VLOOKUP( search_key, data, column_index, false )

The search_key is the repeating array 2,3,4,2,3,4,2,3,4 etc. created using the same formula construction as the first part of the Products formula from Solution 1.

The column_index is the repeating array 2,2,2,3,3,3,4,4,4, etc. created using the same formula construction as the first part of the Customers formula from Solution 1.

When you plug these into the VLOOKUP, you’re searching for 2 and returning column 2, then searching for 3 returning column 2, searching 4 returning column 2, then searching 2 returning column 3, etc.

In other words, traversing the array of values and grabbing each one in turn.

The data needs to be setup by adding a search column at the front, which is done using the curly brackets array literal construction, like so:

=ArrayFormula({ROW(Sheet1!$A$2:$A),Sheet1!$B$2:$1000})

All that’s left is to combine them into the VLOOKUP, like so:

=ArrayFormula(VLOOKUP(MOD(SEQUENCE(COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)*COUNTA(Sheet1!$1:$1),1,2)-2,COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A))+2,{ROW(Sheet1!$A$2:$A),Sheet1!$B$2:$1000},ROUNDUP(SEQUENCE(COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)*COUNTA(Sheet1!$1:$1),1)/COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A))+1))

Voila! Clear as mud, huh?

Unpivot in Google Sheets – Solution 3

In this solution, all we do is combine the three columns together into a single, giant array formula, using the curly bracket array literal construction.

Starting with the three columns combined:

= ArrayFormula({ Customer_Formula, Product_Formula, Values_Formula })

Next, we’ll wrap it with a QUERY function to remove null values:

= ArrayFormula( QUERY( { Customer_Formula, Product_Formula, Values_Formula } , "SELECT * WHERE Col3 IS NOT NULL" ))

The full array construction, with a static header row added, is:

=ArrayFormula( {"Customer","Product","Value";
QUERY( { Customer_Formula , Product_Formula , Values_Formula } , "SELECT * WHERE Col3 IS NOT NULL" )})

We can then simply plug in the Customer_Formula, Product_Formula and Values_Formula to create a one-stop shop for unpivoting our data:

=ArrayFormula({"Customer","Product","Value"; QUERY({HLOOKUP(ROUNDUP(SEQUENCE(COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)*COUNTA(Sheet1!$1:$1),1)/COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A))+1,{COLUMN(Sheet1!$1:$1);Sheet1!$1:$1},2),
VLOOKUP(MOD(SEQUENCE(COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)*COUNTA(Sheet1!$1:$1),1)-1,COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A))+2,{ROW(Sheet1!$A:$A),Sheet1!$A:$A},2),
VLOOKUP(MOD(SEQUENCE(COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)*COUNTA(Sheet1!$1:$1),1,2)-2,COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A))+2,{ROW(Sheet1!$A$2:$A),Sheet1!$B$2:$1000},ROUNDUP(SEQUENCE(COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)*COUNTA(Sheet1!$1:$1),1)/COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A))+1)
},"SELECT * WHERE Col3 IS NOT NULL")})

Unpivot in Google Sheets – Solution 4

This one really blew my mind when I first saw it and picked it apart.

Kudos to this person on Stack Overflow for the original amazing answer.

I’ve modified it slightly, but have merely contributed a minor update to an ingenious and original solution.

Here it is, in all it’s mysterious detail:

=ArrayFormula({"Customer","Product","Value";
QUERY(IFERROR(SPLIT(TRIM(TRANSPOSE(SPLIT(TRANSPOSE(QUERY(TRANSPOSE(QUERY(TRANSPOSE(IF(Sheet1!B2:Z<>"", Sheet1!A2:A&"🐠"&Sheet1!B1:1&"🐠"&Sheet1!B2:Z&"🌶", )), , 500000)), , 500000)),"🌶"))),"🐠"),""),"SELECT Col2, Col1, Col3 ORDER BY Col2 OFFSET 1",0)})

First off, what on earth are those fish 🐠 and chili peppers 🌶 doing in this formula? Is this some kind of joke?

No, no, my friend. Read on and you’ll find out!

But before we do that, let me show you the amazing trick with the QUERY function that is key to this formula.

Taking our dataset again:

Unpivot in Google Sheets wide table

Try this formula in cell H1:

=QUERY(A1:E4,"SELECT A",4)

See what it does?

Query headers trick

It joins the values in column A into a single string, because we’ve told the QUERY function to treat all 4 rows as headers. Crazy!

Even better, you can skip the SELECT statement altogether, like this:

=QUERY(A1:E4,,4)

which results in all of the columns being concatenated:

Query headers trick

Now that is interesting!

And it’s at the heart of how this crazy formula works.

Let’s build it up in steps, following the Onion Method.

The innermost IF function is (note the value_if_false argument is empty):

=ArrayFormula(IF(Sheet1!B2:Z<>"", Sheet1!A2:A&"🐠"&Sheet1!B1:1&"🐠"&Sheet1!B2:Z&"🌶", ))

which gives the following output:

Array If formula

For every row of data, the formula joins them such that each cell has a unique combination of product, customer and value.

Next we transpose this array and join using the funky QUERY-header row trick above:

=ArrayFormula(QUERY(TRANSPOSE(IF(Sheet1!B2:Z<>"", Sheet1!A2:A&"🐠"&Sheet1!B1:1&"🐠"&Sheet1!B2:Z&"🌶", )),,500000))

This gives a #REF! error, with the message “Result was not automatically expanded, please insert more columns (699).”

The array output is too wide for our current Sheet.

Wrap it with a transpose function to fix this and get all the data in a single column:

=ArrayFormula(TRANSPOSE(QUERY(TRANSPOSE(IF(Sheet1!B2:Z<>"", Sheet1!A2:A&"🐠"&Sheet1!B1:1&"🐠"&Sheet1!B2:Z&"🌶", )),,500000)))

Use a second QUERY function with this headers trick to bring these values together:

=ArrayFormula(TRANSPOSE(QUERY(TRANSPOSE(QUERY(TRANSPOSE(IF(Sheet1!B2:Z<>"", Sheet1!A2:A&"🐠"&Sheet1!B1:1&"🐠"&Sheet1!B2:Z&"🌶", )),,500000)),,500000)))

Now we basically just split this up based on the fish “🐠” and chili pepper “🌶” symbols that we used to separate the data packets.

Here’s the first split and transpose:

=ArrayFormula(TRANSPOSE(SPLIT(TRANSPOSE(QUERY(TRANSPOSE(QUERY(TRANSPOSE(IF(Sheet1!B2:Z<>"", Sheet1!A2:A&"🐠"&Sheet1!B1:1&"🐠"&Sheet1!B2:Z&"🌶", )),,500000)),,500000)),"🌶")))

By now, our data looks like this, which is getting closer:

Unpivot in Google Sheets

Use the TRIM function to fix those unsightly spacing issues.

Next, split it again across the tropical fish:

=ArrayFormula(SPLIT(TRIM(TRANSPOSE(SPLIT(TRANSPOSE(QUERY(TRANSPOSE(QUERY(TRANSPOSE(IF(Sheet1!B2:Z<>"", Sheet1!A2:A&"🐠"&Sheet1!B1:1&"🐠"&Sheet1!B2:Z&"🌶", )),,500000)),,500000)),"🌶"))),"🐠"))

Unpivot in Google Sheets

Nearly there now!

Remove the #VALUE! error with an IFERROR wrapper function. Use a QUERY wrapper to re-order the rows and columns as required. The OFFSET removes a blank row from showing up in the table. The formula now looks like this:

=ArrayFormula(QUERY(IFERROR(SPLIT(TRIM(TRANSPOSE(SPLIT(TRANSPOSE(QUERY(TRANSPOSE(QUERY(TRANSPOSE(IF(Sheet1!B2:Z<>"", Sheet1!A2:A&"🐠"&Sheet1!B1:1&"🐠"&Sheet1!B2:Z&"🌶", )),,500000)),,500000)),"🌶"))),"🐠"),""),"SELECT Col2, Col1, Col3 ORDER BY Col2 OFFSET 1"))

And the output like this:

Split function Google Sheets

The final step is borrowed from Solution 3 above, namely combining a static header row with array literals.

=ArrayFormula({"Customer","Product","Value"; MAIN_FORMULA })

Now we can insert our formula into this construction, in place of the MAIN_FORMULA placeholder:

=ArrayFormula({"Customer","Product","Value";
QUERY(IFERROR(SPLIT(TRIM(TRANSPOSE(SPLIT(TRANSPOSE(QUERY(TRANSPOSE(QUERY(TRANSPOSE(IF(Sheet1!B2:Z<>"", Sheet1!A2:A&"🐠"&Sheet1!B1:1&"🐠"&Sheet1!B2:Z&"🌶", )), , 500000)), , 500000)),"🌶"))),"🐠"),""),"SELECT Col2, Col1, Col3 ORDER BY Col2 OFFSET 1",0)})

Crazy formula in Google Sheets

Further Reading

For more information on the shape of datasets, have a read of Spreadsheet Thinking vs. Database Thinking.

Gmail Mail Merge For A Specific Label With Apps Script

Every Monday I send out a Google Sheets tip email and occasionally I’ll include a formula challenge.

I posted Formula Challenge #3 — to alphabetize a string of words separated by commas using a single formula — in January 2020 and had over 150 replies!

It would have been too time consuming to reply to all 150 responses manually from my inbox.

Since 95% of all my replies would be the same (a thank you and the formula solution) it was a perfect case for automation.

And Apps Script is designed for automation in G Suite.

(The solution was essentially a mash up of this post on extracting email addresses in Gmail and this post on reply to Google Form solutions quickly with Apps Script.

Gmail Mail Merge Script Outline

  1. Make sure all of the emails are labeled correctly in Gmail (you can use a filter to do this).
  2. Then use Apps Script to extract the solution responses into a Sheet with names and emails addresses.
  3. Categorize each row of data (i.e. each email) into 3 or 4 different categories, e.g. “Correct”, “Correct but…” etc.
  4. Next, create a reply template for each of these categories, to say thank you for taking part and also sharing any feedback.
  5. Then use a simple VLOOKUP formula to add a reply to each row, based on the category.
  6. Following that, use Apps Script to create draft emails for everyone in the Sheet (the Gmail Mail Merge part).
  7. The last part is manual: a quick check of original email and response, add any customization and then press SEND.

Part 1: Extract Gmail Emails To Google Sheet With Apps Script

Assuming all your emails are labeled, so that they’re all together in a folder, you can use Apps Script to search for this label and extract the messages into a Google Sheet.

Search for the messages under this label with the search query method from the GmailApp service. This returns an array of Gmail threads matching this query.

Retrieve all the messages with the getMessagesForThreads() method.

From this array of messages, extract the From field and the body text.

The From field takes the form:

Ben Collins <test@example.com>

Parse this with a map function, which creates a new array out of the original array where a function has been applied to each element. In this case, the function parses the From field into a name and email address using regular expression.

Finally, this new array, containing the Name, Email Address and Message Body, is returned to whichever function called the extractEmails() function.

Here’s the code:

function extractEmails() {
  
  // define label
  var label = 'marketing-formula-challenge-#3';
  
  // get all email threads that match label from Sheet
  var threads = GmailApp.search("label:" + label);
  
  // get all the messages for the current batch of threads
  var messages = GmailApp.getMessagesForThreads(threads);
  
  var emailArray = [];
  
  // get array of email addresses
  messages.forEach(function(message) {
    message.forEach(function(d) {
      emailArray.push([d.getFrom(),d.getPlainBody()]);
    });
  });
  
  // parse the From field
  var parsedEmailArray = emailArray.map(function(el) {
    var name = "";
    var email = "";
    var matches = el[0].match(/\s*"?([^"]*)"?\s+<(.+)>/);
    
    if (matches) {
      name = matches[1]; 
      email = matches[2];
    }
    else {
      name = "N/k";
      email = el;
    }
    
    return [name,email,"'"+el[1]];
  });
  return parsedEmailArray;
}

To paste into the Google Sheet, I created this function, which actually calls the extractEmails() function on line 8 to retrieve the email data:

function pasteToSheet() {
  
  // get the spreadsheet
  var ss = SpreadsheetApp.getActiveSpreadsheet();
  var sheet = ss.getActiveSheet();  
  
  // get email data
  var emailArray = extractEmails();
  
  // clear any old data
  sheet.getRange(2,1,sheet.getLastRow(),4).clearContent();
  
  // paste in new names and emails and sort by email address A - Z
  sheet.getRange(2,1,emailArray.length,3).setValues(emailArray);
  
}

Running this pasteToSheet() function creates a Google Sheet with the Name, Email Address and Message Body in columns A, B and C:

Gmail Mail Merge Google Sheet

Now review each row and assign a category. You want to have enough categories to catch the main differences in responses but not too many that it becomes manual and tedious (which we’re trying to get away from!).

For example, in this formula challenge, I had these four categories:

Correct, Extra Transpose, Other, N/a

Part 2: Create Reply Templates In Google Sheets

In a different tab (which I called “Reply Templates”), create your reply templates. These are the boilerplate replies for each generic category.

Gmail Mail Merge Reply Templates

Then use a standard VLOOKUP to add one of these reply templates to each row, based on the category:

=VLOOKUP(D2,'Reply Templates'!$A$1:$B$6,2,FALSE)

The Sheet now looks like this (click to enlarge):

Gmail Mail Merge Vlookup

Part 3: Create Draft Replies For Gmail Mail Merge

The final step is to create draft Gmail replies for each email in your Sheet, and then send them after a quick review.

This function retrieves the extracted email data from the Sheet, then searches for them in the label folder. It creates a draft reply for each email with the reply template response from the Sheet data.

function createDraftReplies() {
  
  // grab the email addresses from Google Sheet
  var ss = SpreadsheetApp.getActiveSpreadsheet();
  var sheet = ss.getActiveSheet();
  var data = sheet.getRange(2,1,sheet.getLastRow(),7).getValues();
    
  // loop over them, find mnost recent email under that label for that email address
  data.forEach(function(arr) {
    
    if (arr[6] === "") {
      var emailAddress = arr[1];
      var reply = arr[5];
      var threads = GmailApp.search('label:marketing-formula-challenge-#3 from:' + emailAddress)[0];
      var message = threads.getMessages()[0];
      message.createDraftReply(reply);
    }
    
  });
}

When the script has finished running, all of the emails in this label folder will have a draft reply.

Review them, customize them if needed and press Send! 📤

Gmail Mail Merge Notes

1) I could have used the reply method of the GmailApp service to automatically send replies and skip the draft review process. This would be useful if reviewing each draft was too time consuming at scale.

2) I did not include any error handling in this script.

This was deliberate because I was creating a one-use-and-done solution so I wanted to move as quickly as possible. This is one of the strengths of Apps Script. You can use it to create quick and dirty type of solutions to fill little gaps in your workflow. If the problem is specific enough, and not intended to be used elsewhere, you don’t need to worry too much about error handling and edge cases.

3) Lastly, be aware of Apps Script quotas when sending emails automatically with Apps Script. It’s 100 for consumer plans and 1,500 for G Suite (Business and Education).

Formula Challenge #3: Alphabetize Comma-Separated Strings

(This Formula Challenge originally appeared as Tip #85 in my weekly Google Sheets Tips newsletter, on 20 January 2020.

Sign up here so you don’t miss out on future Formula Challenges!

Find all the Formula Challenges archived here.)

The Challenge

Start with a list of words in a single cell, separated by commas and not in alphabetical order, like so:

Epsilon,Alpha,Gamma,Delta,Beta

Formula Challenge 3

Your challenge is to create a single formula (i.e. in a single cell) that reorders this list into alphabetical order.

Step 1

Use the SPLIT function to separate the comma-delimited string into separate cells.

=SPLIT(A1,",")

(Split has two additional arguments and you have to be precise with your delimiter. In this simple example, we can omit the two additional arguments. See here for more info on the nuances of the SPLIT function.)

Step 2

Use the TRANSPOSE function to change from row orientation to a column orientation, so that we can sort in Step 3.

=TRANSPOSE(SPLIT(A1,","))

Step 3

Sort the data with the SORT function!

You don’t need to specify a column or direction, because we only have 1 column and we want ascending order, which is the default order. This keeps our formula brief.

=SORT(TRANSPOSE(SPLIT(A1,",")))

Step 4

Finally, join the column back together with the JOIN function, again using a comma as the delimiter.

There’s no need to use a second transpose because the JOIN function works with a column of data just as easily as a row of data!

=JOIN(",",SORT(TRANSPOSE(SPLIT(A1,","))))

Bingo!

Formula Challenge 3 Solution

Community Solutions

I had over 150 responses to this formula challenge, and most came up with this same formula. It confirmed what I thought that there’s no shorter way to do it.

If you want to see how I used Apps Script to help me reply to these 150 emails, check out this article: Gmail Mail Merge For A Specific Label

Don’t Miss Future Formula Challenge!

There are more formula challenges in the pipeline.

If you want to get involved and up your Google Sheets game whilst you exercise the ‘ole grey matter, consider signing up to my Google Sheets Tips newsletter.