The BYCOL function in Google Sheets operates on an array or range and returns a new row array, created by grouping each column to a single value.

Here’s a simple example, showing a table of exam scores:

The formula in A8 is:

`=BYCOL(A2:D6,LAMBDA(c,AVERAGE(c)))`

The easiest way to think about using BYCOL is to think “what function can I use on a single column?” and then think of BYCOL as just repeating that operation across multiple columns.

BYCOL passes the input array to a lambda function, which takes an input column, called “c”, and calculates the average value for that column. It loops over each column and returns a row array of average values, one for each column.

🔗 *Get this example and others in the template at the bottom of this article.*

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