Formula Challenge #4: Sort A Column By Last Name

This Formula Challenge originally appeared as Tip #108 of my weekly Google Sheets Tips newsletter, on 29 June 2020. Sign up so you don’t miss future Formula Challenges!

Find all the Formula Challenges archived here.

The Challenge: Sort A Column By Last Name

Start with a list of any ten two-word names in column A, like so:

Formula Challenge 4

Your challenge is to create a single formula in cell B1 (shown in yellow below) that sorts this list alphabetically by the last name, like this:

Sort Column By Last Name


  • The names to sort are in the range A1:A10
  • Each name consists of a first name and last name only, with a single space between them
  • None of the names have prefixes or suffixes
  • The formula in cell B1 should output the full names in range B1:B10

Solutions To Sort A Column By Last Name

I received over 90 replies to this formula challenge with at least 10 different methods for solving it. This was super interesting to see!

Congratulations to everyone who took part.

I learnt so much from the different replies, many of which proffered shorter and more elegant solutions than my own original formula.

Here I present the best 4 solutions, chosen for their simplicity and elegance.

There’s a lot to learn by looking through them.



Use this formula in cell B1 to sort the data alphabetically by the last name:

=SORT(A1:A10,INDEX(SPLIT(A1:A10," "),,2),1)

This is a beautiful solution.

It’s deceptively simple, as you’ll see below when we break it down. And yet, only a handful of people submitted this solution.

How does this formula work?

Let’s use the onion method to peel back the layers and build this formula in steps from the innermost layer.

Step 1:

Enter this formula as a starting point:

=SPLIT(A1:A10," ")

It takes the range A1:A10 as an input and splits the names on the space character. That works in this example because of our rigid assumptions that all names are two-word names.

The output is a single row with the name split across two cells. (Adding an ArrayFormula would give an output of all ten names, but it’s not required when we plug this split into the INDEX function.)

Step 2:

Wrap the formula from step 1 in an INDEX function:

=INDEX(SPLIT(A1:A10," "),,2)

Leave the row argument (the second argument) in the function blank and choose column 2 in the column argument (the third one). This formula outputs the list of second names, still in the original order however.

Step 3:

The SORT function takes three arguments: the range to sort, the column to sort on, and whether to sort ascending or descending.

So A1:A10, the range containing the full names, is the range we want to sort.

Then the column of last names created in step 2 is the column we want to sort on. This is our second argument.

Then the third argument is a TRUE or 1 to indicate we want to sort the names ascending.

So plugging these three arguments into the SORT function gives the following formula:

=SORT(A1:A10,INDEX(SPLIT(A1:A10," "),,2),1)

This formula can be modified to include the whole of column A if there are more than 10 names. Simply change the range from A1:A10 to A1:A as follows:

=SORT(A1:A,INDEX(SPLIT(A1:A," "),,2),1)

2. QUERY method


Use this formula in cell B1 to sort the data alphabetically by the last name:

=ArrayFormula(QUERY({A1:A10,SPLIT(A1:A10," ")},"select Col1 order by Col3"))

Step 1:

Step 1 is the same as the step 1 in solution 1 above, and uses the SPLIT to separate the names into first and last names in separate columns:

=SPLIT(A1:A10," ")

Step 2:

Step 2 combines these two split columns with the original column of names using curly braces to construct an array of full name, first name and last name.

=ArrayFormula({A1:A10,SPLIT(A1:A10," ")})

The ArrayFormula wrapper is necessary to output all 10 values in this example.

Step 3:

The array created by step 2 is used as the input data range in the QUERY function in step 3:

=ArrayFormula(QUERY({A1:A10,SPLIT(A1:A10," ")},"select Col1 order by Col3"))

Since the input range of the QUERY function is constructed with the curly brace notation {…} we are required to use the Col1, Col2, etc. notation to access the columns. The query clause is pretty simple. Select only column 1 of the array (the full name) but sort by column 3 (the last name).

Note, the ArrayFormula can be brought outside the QUERY to be the outer wrapper.

This formula can be extended easily to the whole of column A by changing the range to A1:A and adding a WHERE clause to filter out the blank rows:

=ArrayFormula(QUERY({A1:A,SPLIT(A1:A," ")},"select Col1 where Col1 is not null order by Col3"))

3. REGEX method I


Use this formula in cell B1 to sort the data alphabetically by the last name:

=INDEX(SORT(REGEXEXTRACT(A1:A10,"((.*)( .*))"),3,1),,1)

If the first solution was the shortest and simplest, then this is perhaps the most elegant.

It only references the data range A1:A10 once, whereas all the other solutions presented here reference the data range twice.

Step 1:

Use the REGEXEXTRACT function to split the data into three columns of full name, first name and last name:

=REGEXEXTRACT(A1:A10,"((.*)( .*))")

The REGEX functions in Google Sheets use the re2 flavor of regex.

This formula uses numbered capturing groups to capture the data, denoted by (.*) and ( .*) with the second having a space. The .* simply says match zero or more of any character.

In other words the (.*)( .*) construction separates into first and last names. Adding another matching group with the additional parentheses ((.*)( .*)) also matches the full name.

These three columns are passed into the SORT function in STEP 2:

Step 2:

=SORT(REGEXEXTRACT(A1:A10,"((.*)( .*))"),3,1)

The data is sorted on column 3 containing the last name. The 1 represents a TRUE value which sorts the data ascending from A-Z.

Step 3:

In the final step, we use the INDEX function to return only the first column, which has the full name.

=INDEX(SORT(REGEXEXTRACT(A1:A10,"((.*)( .*))"),3,1),,1)

4. REGEX method II


Use this formula in cell B1 to sort the data alphabetically by the last name:

=SORT(A1:A10,REGEXEXTRACT(A1:A10,"(?: )(\w*)"),1)

This is the same method as the first solution, but uses REGEXEXTRACT instead of INDEX/SPLIT. So it’s one less function, but the REGEXEXTRACT function is much harder to understand than the INDEX/SPLIT combination for those unfamiliar with the black magic of regular expressions.

Step 1:

Use the REGEXEXTRACT function to extract the last names from the data:

=REGEXEXTRACT(A1:A10,"(?: )(\w*)")

The (?: ) is a non-capturing group matching the space. In other words the REGEXEXTRACT matches the space but doesn’t extract it.

The \w character matches word characters (≡ [0-9A-Za-z_]) and the * means match zero or more word characters but prefer more.

The parentheses ( ) around the \w* make it a captured group so it’s extracted.

See, regular expressions are as clear as mud.

Ok, so what’s happening is that it matches on the space, but doesn’t return it. Then it matches on the word group that follows the space and returns that. Hence we get an output range of last names only.

Step 2:

The final step is to sort range A1:A10 using the last names extracted in step 2, and sort them ascending. This step is identical to the implementation in solution 1.

=SORT(A1:A10,REGEXEXTRACT(A1:A10,"(?: )(\w*)"),1)

This formula can be modified to include the whole of column A if there are more than 10 names. Simply change the range from A1:A10 to A1:A as follows:

=SORT(A1:A,REGEXEXTRACT(A1:A,"(?: )(\w*)"),1)

There we go!

Four brilliant solutions to an interesting formula challenge.

Please leave comments if you have anything you wish to add.

And don’t forget to sign up to my Google Sheets Tips newsletter so you don’t miss future formula challenges!

Connected Sheets: Analyze Big Data In Google Sheets

The future of Google Sheets is analyzing millions, even billions, of rows of data with regular formulas and pivot tables.

The future of Google Sheets is Connected Sheets.

That’s a bold claim, so let’s explore it.

Check out this formula operating on 1.5 billion rows of data:

Billion Row Formula Connected Sheets

I just ran a COUNT function across 1.5 Billion rows of data. Inside my Google Sheet.

1.5 Billion rows of data!


Fzzzzzzt……that’s the sound of all the circuit boards in my head frying simultaneously 🤯

Connected Sheets

I think we can all agree there’s a lot of data out there. We live in a data-rich world. And it’s only ever going to grow from here as more and more people and devices come online.

And we can also agree that “big data” is too large to store and analyze in your Google Sheets.

Until now…

Connected Sheets is a new data feature in Google Sheets for customers of G Suite Enterprise, G Suite Enterprise Essentials and G Suite Enterprise for Education.

You use the Connected Sheets feature to analyze millions or billions of rows of data inside your Google Sheets, using regular functions, pivot tables and charts.

The data lives in Google BigQuery, which is a big data analysis product from Google Cloud.

BigQuery is an incredible tool but does require knowledge of SQL code to use it.

Connected Sheets circumvents that need and gives Google Sheets users the ability to analyze big data inside their Sheets, using the familiar interface.

What Can Connected Sheets Do?

Connected Sheets can do similar operations with big datasets that you’re used to doing with regular datasets in Google Sheets, namely:

  1. Running a defined set of functions on big datasets*
  2. Creating calculated columns with big datasets*
  3. Extracting small data tables, called Extracts, from big datasets*, which can be used like regular Google Sheets tables
  4. Creating pivot tables from big datasets*
  5. Creating charts from big datasets*
  6. Scheduling automatic data refresh jobs to keep data current

* i.e. tables with millions or even billions of rows of data in BigQuery

I think the best way to explore these features is to run through a quick demo data analysis project.

Analysis Of New York Citibike Data

You access Connected Sheets through the Data menu of your Google Sheet.

You need to have a project setup in BigQuery with billing enabled before you can connect to it from the Connected Sheets menu.

When you create a new Connected Sheet, you’re prompted through a series of options to select a BigQuery project and table that you want to connect to.

In this example, I’ve connected to the New York Citibike public dataset, which has 59 million rows of data and 16 columns, which would be nearly a billion cells of data if we could put it into a spreadsheet.

Connected Sheets Data Connection

When it opens, you’re shown a preview of the dataset, i.e. all of the columns and the first 500 rows.

New York citibike dataset Connected Sheets

It looks like an ordinary Google Sheet, but there are five action buttons above the Sheet: Chart, Pivot Table, Function, Extract and Calculated Column.

You’ll also notice the word “Refresh options” next to the table name and “Refresh” down at the bottom in the preview note. You need to refresh periodically to include any new data from BigQuery in your Connected Sheets results. You can schedule these refreshes to happen automatically.

Now let’s explore each of the features in turn, starting with functions:

Functions with Connected Sheets

Functions in Connected Sheets are useful for getting specific answers from your data, i.e in situations when you know what you’re looking for.

For example, if I want to count how many rows of data there are in a dataset then I would use a simple COUNT function.

It’s exactly the same here with the Big Dataset in the Connected Sheet. I use a simple function in Connected Sheets.

The flow is a little different, as there is an extra click to activate the function, but otherwise it’s a regular ole’ formula:

Connected Sheets function Apply Button

The formula looks like this in the Sheet:


And gives the answer:


53 million rows of data, each representing a bike trip with one of New York City’s Citibike bikes.

Boom! It’s as easy as that!

Comparison: To do the same calculation in BigQuery, you need to write a simple query in the BigQuery editor:


Which gives the same answer of 53,108,721

As you can see, it requires knowing your way around BigQuery and of course, how to write basic SQL.

Wait a minute though!

This dataset is supposed to have 59m rows of data, not 53m.

There must be some blank rows (null values) in the data.

Let’s use Connected Sheets to test that hypothesis, using the Extract feature.

Connected Sheets Extracts

The Extract feature lets you extract smaller tables from the larger BigQuery dataset (remember the data shown in the Sheet is just a preview and the actual dataset lives in BigQuery).

Extracts are useful for things like extracting all records pertaining to a certain customer, or looking at the largest X transactions for example. Another use case might be investigating issues with datasets.

For example, I have a strong hunch there are null values (blanks) in the dataset.

So I create an Extract using a filter set to “Value is empty” to return a subset of empty rows.

The Extract Editor is similar to the pivot table Editor, allowing you to select which columns to include, what filters or sorts to apply and what the row limit is (how many to return).

Here’s the Extract editor prior to pressing the Apply button.

You can see the blue cross shading applied to the data area to show it hasn’t been queried yet.

Connected Sheets Table Extract

With every calculation in Connected Sheets, you need to press the “Apply” button to run the query in BigQuery to return the data.

The Extract is returned with blank rows as I expected. So there are null values in the dataset!

Presumably there are about 6 million of them, but let’s confirm that using a calculated column and function in Connected Sheets to count the null values.

Calculated Columns in Connected Sheets

Much the same way as you’d insert a column into a regular Google Sheet table and add in a formula to perform some calculation, you can do the same with Connected Sheets datasets.

Calculated columns are added to the right side of the Connected Sheets preview table (although the order doesn’t matter in a database, since you access a column by its name).

You can use a limited set of regular Google Sheets functions in calculated columns, which are then applied to the entire big dataset in BigQuery.

Let’s continue with the New York Citibike dataset.

Choose the “+ Calculated Column” button above the data preview.

The Calculated Column editor pops up, where you can enter a formula using column names instead of range references.

I’m going to multiply the start station ID by 1, because this will transform any blanks (nulls) into 0 values, which I can count.

Connected Sheets calculated column

I can now create a COUNTIF function using this calculated column, to count these null rows:

Connected Sheets Countif function

That looks about right!

Added together, those two values give us the 59 million rows in our full dataset.

Let’s add another calculated column to calculate a rider’s age.

The dataset contains the birth year for every rider, which we can use to calculate the age:

Connected Sheets calculated column

There are some very old people in the data!

To me this seems unlikely (people over 100 years old riding citibikes in NYC? Hmm, I don’t know about that). These are probably errors in the data and would merit further exploration.

But for now, let’s draw a chart of rides by age.

Connected Sheets Charts

You can showcase your results with Charts, created directly from the data in BigQuery.

Clicking on the Chart button above the dataset creates a chart and opens the chart editor.

It’s more akin to creating a pivot table than a regular Google Sheets chart. The same customization options are all there however.

Connected Sheets chart

Two things jumped out at me from this chart:

Firstly, it’s an example of a classic right-skewed distribution. It’s unsurprising to see the peak age of riders is in the mid- to late-thirties and then it gradually decreases from there. This is what you’d expect.

Secondly though, what on earth is that spike doing around age 51? It seems unlikely there would be a sudden, huge increase of ridership going from 50 to 51, and then equally precipitous drop-off going from 51 to 52. Perhaps it’s a strange mid-life crisis unique to New York City.

Let’s use a pivot table to investigate further.

Connected Sheets Pivot Tables

Pivot tables are an incredible tool that allow you to explore your datasets in depth.

In essence, pivot tables aggregate (i.e. roll-up or summarize) your data.

It’s quick and easy to change the variables shown in your pivot tables, so they’re a great tool to understand what’s going on with your data.

Pivot tables in Connected Sheets condense millions or billions of rows of data into concrete insights. Insights that would be impossible to find any other way.

In this example, the pivot table shows the number of rides summarized by the age (rows) and gender (column) of each rider. It includes the full 59m rows of data.

Pivot table on BigQuery dataset

Using this pivot table data, let’s recreate the rides-by-age chart again, but this time split by gender as well:

Connected Sheets Chart

And there we go!

The mystery is revealed.

There’s a group of riders in the data whose gender is unknown and who all have the same age around 51.

Perhaps there’s a ‘prefer not to say option’ for both “How old are you?” and “Gender?” questions during the sign up process.

That would explain the unknown gender designation, but what about the spike of riders aged 51?

Well, databases use a system called Unix time or Epoch time to measure points in time. This begins on 1/1/1970. So if some riders didn’t enter a date of birth, maybe the system sets the date of birth to the start of Epoch time, causing a spike at age 51. Very interesting!

More Connected Sheets Examples

Proportion of round trips

Suppose we want to know how many trips are round-trips, where the bike is dropped off at the starting station?

In other words, we want to identify all rows of data where the start station and end station match.

Here’s the formula to identify the round-trip rows, which will show as TRUE values.

= start_station_id = end_station_id

Connected Sheets Calculated Column

What’s super cool is that we can then use these calculated columns elsewhere too, for example in a pivot table where we can now answer the original question about identifying round-trips:

Connected Sheets Calculated Column in a Pivot Table

Out of the 59 million bike trips in the dataset, approximately 6.9 million started and finished at the same station (the TRUE values). About 12% of the trips.

Trips per month

Here’s a chart showing the number of bike trips per month. Although this looks like a regular Google Sheets chart, it includes all 59m rows of data from BigQuery (click to enlarge):

Big Data line chart

It clearly shows the increasing number of trips undertaken with Citibike, as well as clear seasonal cycles (the dips in winter).

It also illustrates another important point.

The chart is a static representation of your data at the time you created it.

You can see the timestamp in the bottom left, underneath the chart.

There’s also the option to refresh the data, which updates the chart.

Daily rides by gender

Here’s another chart example — this time drawn from the data in a Connected Sheets pivot table, rather than directly — which looks at the entire population of bike trips and counts the number on each day, split by gender.

Big Data chart

It’s clear to see that the demand is driven by commuters during the week, as evidenced by the peak during the week.

It also clearly shows there have been about three times as many male riders as female riders, to date.

One final feature to showcase is the refresh pane.

Refreshing Components

It’s important to note that the components aren’t live in the way the equivalent Google Sheets component is.

A Connected Sheets function is calculated at a given moment in time and has to be refreshed for new data to be included (whereas in a plain Google Sheet the formula will just reflect whatever data is included).

Similarly other components need to be refreshed. You can control them individually or collectively from the Refresh pane.

There’s also an option to schedule a data refresh, so that the data under consideration in your Connected Sheet is up-to-date. This can be done daily, weekly or monthly.

Connected Sheets Refresh

Availability of Connected Sheets

Connected Sheets is available to customers of G Suite Enterprise, G Suite Enterprise Essentials and G Suite Enterprise for Education.

A BigQuery account is required to use it and it will fall under the existing BigQuery pricing plan (prices are based on both the volume of data stored and the consumption of that data).


Connected Sheets represents a huge leap forward for Google Sheets.

It opens up the world of Big Data to the regular Google Sheets user, and that is very exciting.

Through the examples in this article, I hope you’ve seen how easy it is to work with big datasets. If you can analyze small data in your Google Sheets already, then you’ll be able to apply those same skills to big datasets.

Now you won’t have to rely on a developer to write custom queries for you. You can just dive straight into the data yourself.

I can’t wait to see how this feature is used over the next few years. After all, datasets are only getting bigger from here on!

Further Reading

For more information, keep an eye out for announcements on the G Suite section of the Google Cloud blog and the G Suites Updates blog.

Check out this Connected Sheets YouTube tutorial from the G Suite team.

How to import social media statistics into Google Sheets: The Import Cookbook

Google Sheets has a powerful and versatile set of IMPORT formulas that can import social media statistics.

This article looks at importing social media statistics from popular social media channels into a Google sheet, for social network analysis or social media management. If you manage a lot of different channels then you could use these techniques to set up a master view (dashboard) to display all your metrics in one place.

The formulas below are generally set up to return the number of followers (or page likes) for a given channel, but you could adapt them to return other metrics (such as follows) with a little extra work.

Caveats: these formulas occasionally stop working when the underlying website changes, but I will try to keep this post updated with working versions for the major social media statistics.

Example workbooks: Each example has a link to an associated Google Sheet workbook, so feel free to make your own copy: File > Make a copy....


  1. Facebook
  2. Twitter
  3. Instagram
  4. Youtube
  5. Pinterest
  6. Alexa rank
  7. Quora
  8. Reddit
  9. Spotify
  10. Soundcloud
  11. GTmetrix
  12. Bitly
  13. Linkedin
  14. Sites that don’t work and why not
  15. Closing thoughts
  16. Resources

How to import social media statistics into Google Sheets with formulas

facebook icon Import Facebook data

November 2018 update: The Facebook formula is working again! The trick is to use the mobile URL 😉 Thanks to reader Mark O. for this discovery.

Start with the mobile Facebook page URL in cell A1, e.g. this url

or this variation of it:

Here is the formula to extract page likes:

=INDEX(REGEXEXTRACT(REGEXEXTRACT(LOWER(INDEX(IMPORTXML(A1,"//@content"),2)),"([0-9km,.]+)(?: likes)"),"([0-9,.]+)([km]?)"),,1) * SWITCH(INDEX(REGEXEXTRACT(REGEXEXTRACT(LOWER(INDEX(IMPORTXML(A1,"//@content"),2)),"([0-9km,.]+)(?: likes)"),"([0-9,.]+)([km]?)"),,2),"k",1000,"m",1000000,1)

The following screenshot shows these formulas:

Facebook Data

See the Facebook Import Sheet.

^ Back to Contents

twitter logo Import Twitter data

Start with the mobile Twitter handle URL in cell A1, e.g.

Here is the formula to extract follower count:


The following screenshot shows this formula:

Import twitter data

Note 1: This Twitter formula seems to be particularly volatile, working fine one minute, then not at all the next. I have two Sheets open where it’ll work in one, but not the other!

See the Twitter Import Sheet.

^ Back to Contents

Build Business Dashboards With Google Sheets and Data Studio

Digital marketing dashboard in Google Sheets
  • Learn how to build beautiful, interactive dashboards in my online course.
  • 9+ hours of video content, lifetime access and copies of all the finished dashboard templates.
  • Learn more

instagram logo Import Instagram data

Start with the Instagram page URL in cell A1:

Then, this formula in cell B1 to extract the follower metadata (this may or may not work):


This extracts the following info: “230 Followers, 259 Following, 465 Posts – See Instagram photos and videos from Ben Collins (@benlcollins)”

Next step is to combine this with REGEX to extract the followers for example. Here’s the formula to do that (still assuming url in cell A1):

=INDEX(REGEXEXTRACT(REGEXEXTRACT(LOWER(IMPORTXML(A1,"//meta[@name='description']/@content")),"([0-9km,.]+)( followers)"),"([0-9,.]+)([km]?)"),,1) * SWITCH(INDEX(REGEXEXTRACT(REGEXEXTRACT(LOWER(IMPORTXML(A1,"//meta[@name='description']/@content")),"([0-9km,.]+)( followers)"),"([0-9,.]+)([km]?)"),,2),"k",1000,"m",1000000,1)

This deals with any accounts that have abbreviated thousands (k) or millions (m) notations.

Alternative Approach

The following formulas to extract account metrics appear to only work for the instagram account when you are logged in.

Here’s the number of followers:

=REGEXEXTRACT(INDEX(SPLIT(QUERY(IMPORTDATA(A1),"select Col1 limit 1 offset 181"),""""),1,2),"[\d,]+")

Here’s the number following:

=REGEXEXTRACT(QUERY(IMPORTDATA(A1),"select Col2 limit 1 offset 181"),"[\d,]+")

Here’s the number of posts:

=REGEXEXTRACT(QUERY(IMPORTDATA(A1),"select Col3 limit 1 offset 181"),"[\d,]+")

The following screenshot shows these formulas:

instagram data

See the Instagram Import Sheet.

^ Back to Contents

youtube logo Import YouTube data

Start with the YouTube channel URL in cell A1:

To get the number of subscribers to a YouTube channel, use this formula in cell B1:

=VALUE(INDEX(REGEXEXTRACT(LOWER(INDEX(REGEXEXTRACT(INDEX(IMPORTXML(A1,”//div[@class=’primary-header-actions’]”),1,1),”(Unsubscribe)([0-9kmKM.]+)”),1,2)),”([0-9,.]+)([km]?)”),,1) * SWITCH(INDEX(REGEXEXTRACT(LOWER(INDEX(REGEXEXTRACT(INDEX(IMPORTXML(A1,”//div[@class=’primary-header-actions’]”),1,1),”(Unsubscribe)([0-9kmKM.]+)”),1,2)),”([0-9,.]+)([km]?)”),,2),”k”,1000,”m”,1000000,1))

See the YouTube Import Sheet.

^ Back to Contents

pinterest logo Import Pinterest data

In cell A1, enter the following URL, again replacing benlcollins with the profile you’re interested in:

Then in the adjacent cell, B1, enter the following formula:


to get the following output (screenshot shows older version of the formula, latest one is above and in the template file):

pinterest data

Note, you can also get hold of the profile metadata with the import formulas, as follows:


See the Pinterest Import Sheet.

^ Back to Contents

alexa logo Import Alexa ranking data

Here there are two metrics I’m interested in – a site’s Global rank and a site’s US rank.

Global Rank

To get the Global rank for your site, enter your URL into cell A1 (replace

and use the following helper formula in cell B1:

=QUERY(ArrayFormula(QUERY(IMPORTDATA(A1),"select Col1") & QUERY(IMPORTDATA(A1),"select Col2")),"select * limit 1 offset " & MATCH(FALSE,ArrayFormula(ISNA(REGEXEXTRACT(QUERY(IMPORTDATA(A1),"select Col1") & QUERY(IMPORTDATA(A1),"select Col2"),"Global rank icon.{10,}"))),0)+1)

and then extract the rank in cell C1:


US Rank

Assuming you have the Alexa URL in cell A1 again, then the US rank is extracted with this helper formula:

=QUERY(ArrayFormula(QUERY(IMPORTDATA(A1),"select Col1") & QUERY(IMPORTDATA(A1),"select Col2")),"select * limit 1 offset " & MATCH(FALSE,ArrayFormula(ISNA(REGEXEXTRACT(QUERY(IMPORTDATA(A1),"select Col1") & QUERY(IMPORTDATA(A1),"select Col2"),"title='United States Flag'.alt.{50,}"))),0))

and this formula to extract the actual rank value:


The following screenshot shows these formulas:

alexa data

See the Alexa Ranking Import Sheet.

^ Back to Contents

Build Business Dashboards With Google Sheets and Data Studio

Digital marketing dashboard in Google Sheets
  • Learn how to build beautiful, interactive dashboards in my online course.
  • 9+ hours of video content, lifetime access and copies of all the finished dashboard templates.
  • Learn more

quora logo Import Quora data

In this instance, I’ve imported the number followers Barack Obama has on Quora.

Quora is a little bit different because I need to use the URL and the profile name in my formula, so I’ve kept them in separate cells for that purpose. So in cell A1, add the generic Quora URL:

And then in cell B1, add the profile name:


Then the formula in C1 to get the number of followers is:

=VALUE(QUERY(IMPORTXML(A1&B1,"//a[@href='/profile/"&B1&"/followers']"),"select Col2"))

The following screenshot shows this formula:

quora data

See the Quora Import Sheet.

^ Back to Contents

reddit logo Import Reddit data

Here, I’m using the funny subreddit as my example.

In A1:

To get the number of followers of this subreddit, use this formula in cell B1:


Bonus: To get the number of active viewers of this subreddit:


The following screenshot shows these formulas:

reddit data

See the Reddit Import Sheet.

^ Back to Contents

spotify logo Import Spotify monthly listeners

Here’s a method for extracting the number of followers an artist has on the music streaming site Spotify.

First, find your favorite artist on Spotify:

Copy the URL into cell A1 (it’ll look like this):

(This is Metallica, yeah 🤘)

Then put the following formula into cell A2 to extract the monthly listeners:


See the Spotify Import Sheet.

^ Back to Contents

soundcloud logo Import Soundcloud data

Start with the Soundcloud page URL in cell A1, e.g.

Here is the formula to extract page likes:

=ArrayFormula(VALUE(REGEXEXTRACT(QUERY(SORT(IFERROR(REGEXEXTRACT( IMPORTXML(A1,"//script"),"followers_count..\d{1,}"),""),1,FALSE),"select * limit 1"),"\d{1,}")))

Alternative formula:

Here is an alternative formula to extract the page metadata, which includes the likes:


the formula to extract likes is:

=VALUE(REGEXEXTRACT(REGEXEXTRACT(SUBSTITUTE( IMPORTXML(A1,"//meta[@name='description']/@content"),",",""),"\d{1,}.Followers"),"\d{1,}"))

and to extract the “talking about” number:

=VALUE(REGEXEXTRACT(REGEXEXTRACT(SUBSTITUTE( IMPORTXML(A1,"//meta[@name='description']/@content"),",",""),"\d{1,}.Tracks"),"\d{1,}"))

The following screenshot shows these formulas:

soundcloud data

See the Soundcloud Import Sheet.

^ Back to Contents

gtmetrix_logo Import GTmetrix data

GTmetrix is a website that analyzes website performance.

You need to grab the correct URL before you can start scraping the data. So navigate to the GTmetrix site and enter the URL and hit analyze. You’ll end up with a URL like this:

Those last 8 characters (“BcHv78bP”) appear to be unique each time you run an analysis, so you’ll have to do this step manually.

Then in column B, I use this formula to extract the Page Speed Score and YSlow Score, into cells B1 and B2:


and this formula in cell B3, to get the page details (Fully Loaded Time, Total Page Size and Requests) in cells B3, B4 and B5:


The following screenshot shows these formulas:

gtmetrix data

See the GTmetrix Import Sheet.

^ Back to Contents

Bitly logoImport Bitly click data

Bitly is a service for shortening urls. They provide metrics for how many clicks you’ve had on each bitly link, e,g.

Bitly link metric data for import to Google Sheets

Taking a standard Bitly link (e.g. and appending a “+” to it will take you to the dashboard page, with the metrics. Then we can use the import data function, a query function and a REGEX function to extract the click metrics.

User clicks are:

=VALUE(REGEXEXTRACT(QUERY(IMPORTDATA(A9&"+"),"select Col1 limit 1"),"(?:user_clicks...)([0-9]+)"))

and global clicks are:

=VALUE(REGEXEXTRACT(QUERY(IMPORTDATA(A9&"+"),"select Col5"),"(?:global_clicks:.)([0-9]+)"))

Clicks from the Bitly network are then simply the user clicks subtracted from the global clicks.

The following screenshot shows these formulas:

Bitly data import in Google Sheets

See the Bitly Import Sheet.

^ Back to Contents

linkedin logo Import Linkedin data

This formula is no longer working for extracting Linkedin followers and I have not found an alternative.

In cell A1:

This formula used to work to get the number of Linkedin followers, but no longer:

=QUERY(IMPORTXML(A1,"//div[@class='member-connections']"),"select Col1")

and the output:

linkedin import

There is no example sheet for Linkedin since the formula is no longer working.

^ Back to Contents

cancel icon Sites that don’t work and why not

I’ve tried the following sites but the IMPORT formulas are unable to extract the social media statistics:

  • Linkedin (see above)
  • Similar Web
  • Twitch
  • Mobcrush
  • Crunchbase
  • Majestic SEO

These are all modern sites built using front-end, client-side Javascript frameworks, so the IMPORT formulas can’t extract any data because the page is built dynamically in browser as it’s loaded up. The IMPORT formulas work fine on sites built in the traditional fashion, with lots of well formed HTML tags, where the social media statistics are embedded into the site markup that is passed from the server.

Compare this screenshot of the source code for Mobcrush, built using Angular JS it looks like (click to enlarge):

Angular front end

versus what the source code looks for this page on my website (click to enlarge):

benlcollins code

You can see the code for my site has lots of tags which the IMPORT formulas can parse, whereas the other site’s code does not.

If anyone knows of any clever way to get around this, do share!

Otherwise, you’re next option is to venture down the API route. Yes, this involves coding, but it’s not as hard as you think.

I’ll be posting some API focussed articles soon. In the meantime, check out my post on how to get started with APIs, or for a peak at what’s coming, take a look at my Apps Script + API repo on GitHub.

Loading error

Also, even when these formulas are working, they can be temperamental. If you work with them a lot, sooner or later you’ll find yourself hitting this loading issue all the time, where the formulas stop displaying any results:

Loading error

^ Back to Contents

settings logo Closing thoughts

These formulas are unstable and will sometimes display an error message.

I’ve found that adding or removing the final “/” from the URL can sometimes get the formula working again (the issue is to do with caching).

I can make no guarantee that these will work for you or into the future. Whilst researching this article, I came across several older articles where many of the formulas no longer work. So things change!

To summarize: Caveat Emptor!

^ Back to Contents

link icon Resources

^ Back to Contents

As always, leave any comments, corrections or request other social media statistics below.

Icons from Freepik.

When Your Formula Doesn’t Work: Formula Parse Errors in Google Sheets

Whether you’re just starting out with Google Sheets or are a seasoned pro, sooner or later one of your formulas will give you a formula parse error message rather than the result you want.

It can be frustrating, especially if it’s a longer formula where the formula parse error may not be obvious.

In this post, I’ll explain what a Google Sheets formula parse error is, how to identify what’s causing the problem, and how to fix it.

What is a formula parse error?

Before we get into the different types of errors, you might be wondering what does formula parse error mean?

Essentially, it means Google Sheets can’t interpret your formula. It can’t fulfill the formula request so it returns an error message.

There are a variety of ways this can happen — everything from typos to mathematical impossibilities — and we’ll explore them all in detail below.

Understanding the meaning behind the error messages, and learning how to fix them, is a crucial step to becoming a formula pro in Google Sheets.

Auditing and Debugging Formula Parse Errors in Google Sheets

Match the error message in your Google Sheet to the sections below, and find out what might be causing your error.

  1. An formula parse error message popup prevents me entering my formula
  2. I’m getting an #N/A error message
  3. I’m getting an #DIV/0! error message
  4. I’m getting an #VALUE! error message
  5. I’m getting an #REF! error message
  6. I’m getting an #NAME? error message
  7. I’m getting an #NUM! error message
  8. I’m getting an #ERROR! error message
  9. I’m getting an #NULL! error message
  10. Other strategies for dealing with errors
  11. Functions to help deal with formula errors in Google Sheets
  12. Help! My formula is STILL not working

Here’s a Google Sheet with all these examples in.

1. A formula parse error message popup prevents me entering my formula

You think you’ve finished your formula, so you hit enter and boom! You get slapped with a popup message box "Houston, we have a problem" or similar:

Formula parse error in Google Sheets

It’s reasonably rare that you’ll experience this, and it usually points to some fundamental problem with your formula.

For example, imagine that as you hit the Enter key, you also accidentally struck the “\” key (which is right above the Enter key) and inadvertently added that to the end of your formula:

Unwanted character causes formula parse error

This will result in the popup error message. It’s easily corrected by removing the unwanted character.

How to correct this error?

Try to avoid these in the first place by checking your formula prior to hitting enter. Make sure you’re not missing a cell reference and you don’t have any unwanted characters lurking.

2. I’m getting an #N/A error message. How do I fix it?

The #N/A formula parse error signifies that a value is not available.

#N/A error in Google Sheets

It happens most frequently when you’re using a lookup formula (e.g. VLOOKUP) and the search term isn’t found. This is exactly what has happened in the exact match VLOOKUP in the image above. The search term A-051 is not in our data table so the formula returns #N/A.

This formula is not wrong or broken, so we don’t want to delete it. However, it would be cool if you could display a custom message, something like “Result not found”, instead of #N/A error message, especially if you have a lot of these errors showing. It gives the spreadsheet user much more information and reduces confusion.

Thankfully we can:

How to correct an #N/A error?

Well, there’s this super handy formula IFERROR:

=IFERROR(original formula, value to display if the original formula gives an error)

In this VLOOKUP example, the full formula would look like this:

=IFERROR(VLOOKUP(Search Term, Table, Column Index, FALSE),”Search term not found”)

as shown in this example:

iferror and vlookup Formula parse error example

Instead of showing the #N/A formula parse error when a value is not found, the formula will output our custom message instead “Search term not found”.

3. I’m getting an #DIV/0! error message

This formula parse error happens when a number is divided by zero, which can occur when you have a zero or a blank cell reference in the denominator.

In layman’s terms, what this means is that we trying to compute something like this:

= A / 0

which has no meaning (because there is no answer, which, when multiplied by 0, would return A).

Read more about division by 0 here, although it gets super technical super quickly.

Division by 0 error

Another example is using a formula like AVERAGE with a blank range.

So, = AVERAGE(A1:A10)   will cause a #DIV/0! error if the range A1:A10 contains no numerical values.

How to correct an #DIV/0! error?

Well the first thing to do is determine why your denominator is evaluating to zero.

You can select the denominator and see what it is evaluating to by highlighting it in the formula bar, and seeing what the result is in the little popup box, as shown in this image:

Divide by 0 error evaluation

In this case, the formula in the denominator SUM(A1:A7) evaluates to 0, which causes the error. So check whether your denominator result is 0.

Next, check whether you have linked to blank cells or a blank range in your denominator. Then you can either fill in the blank cell or range, or select a different cell or range for your formula.

If your formula is correct and your cell/ranges are not unintentionally blank, then you’ll want to handle the #DIV/0! error. It looks unsightly and makes your spreadsheet look unfinished if you leave these errors floating around.

As with the #N/A error example, use the IFERROR formula to wrap your current formula and specify a result for when a #DIV/0! error occurs. You might want to output an error message, e.g. “Division by 0 error”, or maybe a specific value, e.g. 0:

Iferror to handle div 0 error

4. I’m getting an #VALUE! error message

This formula parse error typically occurs when your formula is expecting a certain data type as an input but receives the wrong type, for example trying to do math operations on a text value instead of a numerical value.

Spaces in your cells can also cause this error message.

In this example, cell B1 contains a space, which is a string value and causes the #VALUE! error because Google Sheets can’t perform a math operation on it, as seen in this error message:

value error in google Sheets

In general, Google Sheets do a pretty good job of coercing text into numbers when needed. If you enter a value into a cell with some spaces, format it as text and then try to do math on it, Google Sheets will actually force the text into a number and still perform the calculation.

Another cause of #VALUE! errors is mixing US and Rest of World date formats.

US dates have the form MM/DD/YYYY whilst the Rest of the World goes for DD/MM/YYYY. If you have a mix of the two and try to subtract them to get the number of days between them for example, you’ll get the #VALUE! error.

(In fact, it’s the same text/number issue happening underneath the surface. Dates are stored as numbers, but if you’re date is in the wrong format for the country setting for your spreadsheet, it’ll be stored as a text string and Google won’t know it’s meant to be a date.)

Value error caused by dates

Here the correct answer should have been 59, the number of days between the 28 Feb 2017 and the 31st Dec 2016.

How to correct an #VALUE! error?

The error message should give you some information on which part of your formula is causing the problem.

Search for any possible text/number mismatches, or cells containing errant spaces. If you click into a cell and the flashing cursor has a gap between itself and the element it’s next to, then you’ll have a space there.

Cells can look empty but still contain spaces:

Value error explained

Dates with spaces in the middle won’t work either:

Date Value error explained

5. I’m getting a #REF! error message

The #REF! formula parse error occurs when you have an invalid reference.

Missing reference: For example when you reference a cell in your formula that has since been deleted (not the value inside the cell, but the whole cell has been deleted, typically when you’ve deleted a row or column in your worksheet).

In this example, the original formula was = A1 * B1, but when I deleted column A, the formula went haywire because of the missing reference:

Ref error message

Another way that a formula can refer to missing references is when you copy a formula with a relative range at the edge of your sheet. When you copy and paste, it’s possible the relative range moves as if it were outside the bounds of the sheet, which is not allowed and will cause a #REF! error.

In this example, the sum function adds the cells in the 3 rows above. When I try to copy-paste the sum function into a new cell with fewer than 3 rows above, it’ll give me the #REF! error:

Ref Formula parse error caused by copy

Lookup out of bounds: You’ve probably seen the #REF! error if you use lookup formulas frequently, when you’ve tried to return a value outside of ranges you’ve specified. In this VLOOKUP example, I’m trying to return an answer from the 3rd column of a search table that only has 2 columns:

Ref error message lookup out of bounds

Circular dependency: You’ll also get a #REF! error when a circular dependency is detected (when the formula refers to itself).

Ref error message circular dependence

In this example, I have numbers in the range A1 to A3, but the SUM formula in cell A4 tries to sum from A1 to A4, which includes itself. Hence, we have a circular argument where cell A4 is trying to be both an input and output cell, which is not allowed.

How to correct a #REF! error?

First of all, read the error message to determine what kind of #REF! error you’re dealing with. This should give you a big hint on how to correct the error.

For deleted references, look for the #REF! error is inside your formula, and replace the #REF! with the correct reference to a cell or range.

For out-of-bound lookup errors, look through your formula carefully and check your range sizes against any row or column indexes you’re using.

For circular dependencies, find the reference that’s causing the problem (i.e. where you refer to the current cell inside your formula too) and modify it.

6. I’m getting a #NAME? error message

The #NAME? formula parse error signifies a problem with your formula syntax.

The most common reason for this error is a misspelling in one of your function names.

In this example, I misspelt the SUM function as SUMM, which Google Sheets didn’t recognize, so returned an error:

Sum error from misspelling

Another reason for a #NAME? error is referencing a named range which doesn’t actually exist, or is misspelt.



will give you a #NAME? error if the named range profit does not exist

Missing quotation marks around a text value, as shown in this simple formula, will also cause a #NAME? error:


(The word Second is missing quotation marks.)

How to correct an #NAME? error?

Check your function names are correct. Use the function helper wizard to reduce the chances of errors happening, especially for the functions with longer names. As you start typing your formula, you’ll see a menu of functions, which you can select with the up and down arrows and Tab.

Check you have defined all named ranges before using them in your formulas and that they all have the correct spellings.

Check any text values are entered with the required quotation marks.

Lastly, have you missed the colon in your range references? It’ll be obvious because it won’t be highlighted correctly.

This formula =SUM(A1A10)

is missing the colon between A1 and A10 and will throw a #NAME? error.

It should of course read =SUM(A1:A10)

7. I’m getting an #NUM! error message

The #NUM! formula parse error is shown when your formula contains numeric values that aren’t valid.

The classic example is trying to find the square root of a negative number, which isn’t allowed:

Num error in google sheets

(For any math geeks out there, you’ll know that you can resolve square roots of negative numbers with imaginary numbers, but these are outside the realm of spreadsheets.)

Some other functions that can result in #NUM! error messages are the SMALL and LARGE functions. If you try to find the smallest n-th value in your dataset, where n is outside the count of values in your dataset, you’ll get a #NUM! error.

For example, you ask Google Sheets to find the 10th smallest number in a dataset that only has 5 values in it:

Num error caused by small function

(Why this doesn’t return a #REF! error like the VLOOKUP out of bounds example, I don’t know.)

How to correct a #NUM! error?

You need to check the numeric arguments in your formula. The error message should give you some hints about which part of the formula is causing the issue.

8. I’m getting an #ERROR! formula parse error message

This formula parse error message is unique to Google Sheets and doesn’t have a direct equivalent in Excel. It means that Google Sheets can’t understand the formula you’ve entered, because it can’t parse the formula to execute it.

For example, if you manually type in a $ symbol to refer to an amount, but Google Sheets thinks you’re referring to an absolute reference:

Error Formula parse error

or you’ve missed a “&” when concatenating text and numerical values:

Error error concatenation

In this case the formula should be: =”Total “&sum(A1:A3)

Another case, caused when we messed up the closing brackets of a formula:

Error Formula parse error

How to correct an #ERROR! error?

Carefully check your formula for accuracy.

You want to ensure you’ve got the correct number of brackets and correct join syntax between text and numerical values (e.g. using “&”).

When you want to show values with currency symbols or as percentages, don’t manually type in the “$” or the “%”. Instead enter a plain number and then use the formatting options to change it to the style you want.

9. I’m getting an #NULL! error message

I haven’t been able to recreate a #NULL! formula parse error in the wild but theoretically, it exists!

Null Formula parse error

(If you have one showing in your sheet, let me know! I’d love to update this article with an example here.)

10. Other strategies for dealing with a formula parse error

Look for red highlighting in your formula as this will help identify the source of your error e.g. in the case of too many brackets, the extra, superfluous ones will be highlighted in red.

Peeling back the onion: this is a technique to debug errors for long, complex formulas. Unwrap the outer functions in your formula one-by-one, until you get it working again. Then you can start to add them back one-by-one again, and see exactly which step is causing the issue and fix that.

Different syntax in different countries: Some European countries will use semi-colons “;” in place of commas “,” so this could be a cause of your error. Compare these two formula, which have identical inputs and outputs, but the syntax is different for users in different countries (locales).


is the same formula as this:


(This is an example of a VLOOKUP returning multiple values (an array) instead of just a single value.)

Pro tip:

Use apostrophe at the start of a formula to turn it into a text string, which won’t execute. This is sometimes useful for seeing your whole formula for debugging, keeping a copy of your formula so you can copy and paste bits of it elsewhere for testing.

11. Functions to help deal with formula parse errors in Google Sheets

A few other functions related to formula parse errors are worth knowing about.

In fact, there is even a function to generate #N/A errors. It’s of limited use, but can be helpful for doing data validation in more complex formulas.

=NA()    will output an #N/A error. (Google Docs Help on NA)

=ERROR.TYPE(value)    will return a number corresponding to the error type:

  • 1 for #NULL!
  • 2 for #DIV/0!
  • 3 for #VALUE!
  • 4 for #REF!
  • 5 for #NAME?
  • 6 for #NUM!
  • 7 for #N/A
  • 8 for all other errors

(Google Docs Help on ERROR.TYPE)

checks whether a value is the error #N/A, and will give the output TRUE for a #N/A error and FALSE otherwise. (Google Docs Help on ISNA)

checks whether a value is any error other than the #N/A error. (Google Docs Help on ISERR)

checks whether a value is an error, and will give the output TRUE for any error. (Google Docs Help on ISERROR)

These functions can be summarized in the following table:

#N/A error functions

13. Help! My formula is STILL not working

Take a deep breath, don’t panic! There’s an army of Google Sheets super users out there who would love to help you fix your issue, free of charge, in the active help forums.

Try posting your problem into the forum and someone will likely help you out.

To make it easier for people to help you, please share your Google Sheet (either view-only or create a redacted copy if sharing is a concern), what error message you’re getting and what you were expecting the correct answer to be.

Google Sheets Help Forum

The Complete Guide to Simple Automation using Google Sheets Macros

Google Sheets Macros are small programs you create inside of Google Sheets without needing to write any code.

They’re used to automate repetitive tasks. They work by recording your actions as you do something and saving these actions as a “recipe” that you can re-use again with a single click.

For example, you might apply the same formatting to your charts and tables. It’s tedious to do this manually each time. Instead you record a macro to apply the formatting at the click of a button.

In this article, you’ll learn how to use them, discover their limitations and also see how they’re a great segue into the wonderful world of Apps Script coding 😀


  1. What are Google Sheets macros?
  2. Why should you use macros?
  3. How to create your first macro
  4. Other options
  5. Best Practices for Google Sheets Macros
  6. Limitations of Google Sheets Macros
  7. A peek under the hood of Google Sheets Macros
  8. Example of Google Sheets Macros
  9. Resources

1. What are Google Sheets macros?

Think of a typical day at work with Google Sheets open. There are probably some tasks you perform repeatedly, such as formatting reports to look a certain way, or adding the same chart to new sales data, or creating that special formula unique to your business.

They all take time, right?

They’re repetitive. Boring too probably. You’re just going through the same motions as yesterday, or last week, or last month. And anything that’s repetitive is a great contender for automating.

This is where Google Sheets macros come in, and this is how they work:

  • Click a button to start recording a macro
  • Do your stuff
  • Click the button to stop recording the macro
  • Redo the process whenever you want at the click of a button

They really are that simple.

^ Back to Contents

2. Why should you use macros in Google Sheets?

There’s the obvious reason that macros in Google Sheets can save you heaps of time, allowing you to focus on higher value activity.

But there’s a host of other less obvious reasons like: avoiding mistakes, ensuring consistency in your work, decreased boredom at work (corollary: increased motivation!) and lastly, they’re a great doorway into the wonderful world of Apps Script coding, where you can really turbocharge your spreadsheets and G Suite work.

^ Back to Contents

3. Steps to record your first macro

Let’s run through the process of creating a super basic macro, in steps:

1) Open a new Google Sheet (pro-tip 1: type into your browser to create a new Sheet instantly, or pro-tip 2: in your Drive folder hit Shift + s to create a new Sheet in that folder instantly).

Type some words in cell A1.

2) Go to the macro menu: Tools > Macros > Record macro

Google Sheets macro menu

3) You have a choice between Absolute or Relative references. For this first example, let’s choose relative references:

Macro with relative reference

Absolute references apply the formatting to the same range of cells each time (if you select A1:D10 for example, it’ll always apply the macro to these cells). It’s useful if you want to apply steps to a new batch of data each time, and it’s in the same range location each time.

Relative references apply the formatting based on where your cursor is (if you record your macro applied to cell A1, but then re-run the macro when you’ve selected cell D5, the macro steps will be applied to D5 now). It’s useful for things like formulas that you want to apply to different cells.

4) Apply some formatting to the text in cell A1 (e.g. make it bold, make it bigger, change the color, etc.). You’ll notice the macro recorder logging each step:

Macro logging step

5) When you’ve finished, click SAVE and give your Macro a name:

Save macro

(You can also add a shortcut key to allow quick access to run your macro in the future.)

Click SAVE again and Google Sheets will save your macro.

6) Your macro is now available to use and is accessed through the Tools > Macros menu:

select macro menu

7) The first time you run the macro, you’ll be prompted to grant it permission to run. This is a security measure to ensure you’re happy to run the code in the background. Since you’ve created it, it’s safe to proceed.

First, you’ll click Continue on the Authorization popup:

Macro authorization

Then select your Google account:

Macro choose Google account

Finally, review the permissions, and click Allow:

Macro grant permissions

8) The macro then runs and repeats the actions you recorded on the new cell you’ve selected!

You’ll see the following yellow status messages flash across the top of your Google Sheet:

Macro running script

Macro finished script

and then you’ll see the result:

Macro result


Congratulations on your first Google Sheets macro! You see, it was easy!

Here’s a quick GIF showing the macro recording process in full:

Recording a macro

And here’s what it looks like when you run it:

Run your macro

^ Back to Contents

4. Other options

4.1 Macro Shortcuts

This is an optional feature when you save your macro in Google Sheets. They can also be added later via the Tools > Macros > Manage macros menu.

Shortcuts allow you to run your macros by pressing the specific combination of keys you’ve set, which saves you further time by not having to click through the menus.

Any macro shortcut keys must be unique and you’re limited to a maximum of 10 macro shortcut keys per Google Sheet.

Macro shortcut

In the above example, I could run this macro by pressing:

⌘ + option + shift + 1

keys at the same time (takes practice 😉). Will be a different key combo on PC/Chromebooks.

4.2 Deleting macros

You can remove Google Sheets macros from your Sheet through the manage macros menu: Tools > Macros > Manage macros

Under the list of your macros, find the one you want to delete. Click the three vertical dots on right side of macro and then choose Remove macro:

remove macro

4.3 Importing other macros

Lastly, you can add any functions you’ve created in your Apps Script file to the Macro menu, so you can run them without having to go to the script editor window. This is a more advanced option for users who are more comfortable with writing Apps Script code.

import function to macro menu

This option is only available if you have functions in your Apps Script file that are not already in the macro menu. Otherwise it will be greyed out.

^ Back to Contents

5. Best Practices for Google Sheets Macros

Use the minimum number of actions you can when you record your macros to keep them as performant as possible.

For macros that make changes to a single cell, you can apply those same changes to a range of cells by highlighting the range first and then running the macro. So it’s often not necessary to highlight entire ranges when you’re recording your macros.

^ Back to Contents

6. Limitations of Google Sheets Macros

Macros are bound to the Google Sheet in which they’re created and can’t be used outside of that Sheet. Similarly, macros written in standalone Apps Script files are simply ignored.

Macros are not available for other G Suite tools like Google Docs, Slides, etc. (At least, not yet.)

You can’t distribute macros as libraries or define them in Sheets Add-ons. I hope the distribution of macros is improved in the future, so you can create a catalog of macros that is available across any Sheets in your Drive folder.

^ Back to Contents

7. A peek under the hood of Google Sheets Macros

Behind the scenes, macros in Google Sheets converts your actions into Apps Script code, which is just a version of Javascript run in the Google Cloud.

If you’re new to Apps Script, you may want to check out my Google Apps Script: A Beginner’s Guide.

If you want to take a look at this code, you can see it by opening the script editor (Tools > Script editor or Tools > Macros > Manage macros).

You’ll see an Apps Script file with code similar to this:

/** @OnlyCurrentDoc */

function FormatText() {
  var spreadsheet = SpreadsheetApp.getActive();

Essentially, this code grabs the spreadsheet and then grabs the active range of cells I’ve selected.

The macro then makes this selection bold (line 5), italic (line 6), red (line 7, specified as a hex color), font size 18 (line 8) and finally changes the font family to Montserrat (line 9).

The video at the top of this page goes into a lot more detail about this Apps Script, what it means and how to modify it.

Macros in Google Sheets are a great first step into the world of Apps Script, so I’d encourage you to open up the editor for your different macros and check out what they look like.

(In case you’re wondering, the line /** @OnlyCurrentDoc */ ensures that the authorization procedure only asks for access to the current file where your macro lives.)

^ Back to Contents

8. Examples of Google Sheets Macros

8.1 Formatting tables

Record the steps as you format your reporting tables, so that you can quickly apply those same formatting steps to other tables. You’ll want to use Relative references so that you can apply the formatting wherever your table range is (if you used absolute then it will always apply the formatting to the same range of cells).

Check out the video at the top of the page to see this example in detail, including how to modify the Apps Script code to adjust for different sized tables.

8.2 Creating charts

If you find yourself creating the same chart over and over, say for new datasets each week, then maybe it’s time to encapsulate that in a macro.

Record your steps as you create the chart your first time so you have it for future use.

The video at the top of the page shows an example in detail.

The following macros are intended to be copied into your Script Editor and then imported to the macro menu and run from there.

8.3 Convert all formulas to values on current Sheet

Open your script editor (Tools > Script editor). Copy and paste the following code onto a new line:

// convert all formulas to values in the active sheet
function formulasToValuesActiveSheet() {
  var sheet = SpreadsheetApp.getActiveSheet();
  var range = sheet.getDataRange();
  range.copyValuesToRange(sheet, 1, range.getLastColumn(), 1, range.getLastRow());

Back in your Google Sheet, use the Macro Import option to import this function as a macro.

When you run it, it will convert any formulas in the current sheet to values.

8.4 Convert all formulas to values in entire Google Sheet

Open your script editor (Tools > Script editor). Copy and paste the following code onto a new line:

// convert all formulas to values in every sheet of the Google Sheet
function formulasToValuesGlobal() {
  var sheets = SpreadsheetApp.getActiveSpreadsheet().getSheets();
  sheets.forEach(function(sheet) {
    var range = sheet.getDataRange();
    range.copyValuesToRange(sheet, 1, range.getLastColumn(), 1, range.getLastRow());

Back in your Google Sheet, use the Macro Import option to import this function as a macro.

When you run it, it will convert all the formulas in every sheet of your Google Sheet into values.

8.5 Sort all your sheets in a Google Sheet alphabetically

Open your script editor (Tools > Script editor). Copy and paste the following code onto a new line:

// sort sheets alphabetically
function sortSheets() {
  var spreadsheet = SpreadsheetApp.getActiveSpreadsheet();
  var sheets = spreadsheet.getSheets();
  var sheetNames = [];
  sheets.forEach(function(sheet,i) {
  sheetNames.sort().forEach(function(sheet,i) {
    spreadsheet.moveActiveSheet(i + 1);

Back in your Google Sheet, use the Macro Import option to import this function as a macro.

When you run it, it will sort all your sheets in a Google Sheet alphabetically.

8.6 Unhide all rows and columns in the current Sheet

Open your script editor (Tools > Script editor). Copy and paste the following code onto a new line:

// unhide all rows and columns in current Sheet data range
function unhideRowsColumnsActiveSheet() {
  var sheet = SpreadsheetApp.getActiveSheet();
  var range = sheet.getDataRange();

Back in your Google Sheet, use the Macro Import option to import this function as a macro.

When you run it, it will unhide any hidden rows and columns within the data range. (If you have hidden rows/columns outside of the data range, they will not be affected.)

8.7 Unhide all rows and columns in entire Google Sheet

Open your script editor (Tools > Script editor). Copy and paste the following code onto a new line:

// unhide all rows and columns in data ranges of entire Google Sheet
function unhideRowsColumnsGlobal() {
  var sheets = SpreadsheetApp.getActiveSpreadsheet().getSheets();
  sheets.forEach(function(sheet) {
    var range = sheet.getDataRange();

Back in your Google Sheet, use the Macro Import option to import this function as a macro.

When you run it, it will unhide any hidden rows and columns within the data range in each sheet of your entire Google Sheet.

8.8 Set all Sheets to have a specific tab color

Open your script editor (Tools > Script editor). Copy and paste the following code onto a new line:

// set all Sheets tabs to red
function setTabColor() {
  var sheets = SpreadsheetApp.getActiveSpreadsheet().getSheets();
  sheets.forEach(function(sheet) {

Back in your Google Sheet, use the Macro Import option to import this function as a macro.

When you run it, it will set all of the tab colors to red.

Want a different color? Just change the hex code on line 5 to whatever you want, e.g. cornflower blue would be 6495ed

Use this handy guide to find the hex values you want.

8.9 Remove any tab coloring from all Sheets

Open your script editor (Tools > Script editor). Copy and paste the following code onto a new line:

// remove all Sheets tabs color
function resetTabColor() {
  var sheets = SpreadsheetApp.getActiveSpreadsheet().getSheets();
  sheets.forEach(function(sheet) {

Back in your Google Sheet, use the Macro Import option to import this function as a macro.

When you run it, it will remove all of the tab colors from your Sheet (it sets them back to null, i.e. no value).

Here’s a GIF showing the tab colors being added and removed via Macros (check the bottom of the image):

color tabs with Macros

8.10 Hide all sheets apart from the active one

Copy and paste this code into your script editor and import the function into your Macro menu:

function hideAllSheetsExceptActive() {
  var sheets = SpreadsheetApp.getActiveSpreadsheet().getSheets();
  sheets.forEach(function(sheet) {
    if (sheet.getName() != SpreadsheetApp.getActiveSheet().getName()) 

Running this macro will hide all the Sheets in your Google Sheet, except for the one you have selected (the active sheet).

8.11 Unhide all Sheets in your Sheet in one go

Open your script editor (Tools > Script editor). Copy and paste the following code onto a new line:

function unhideAllSheets() {
  var sheets = SpreadsheetApp.getActiveSpreadsheet().getSheets();
  sheets.forEach(function(sheet) {

Back in your Google Sheet, use the Macro Import option to import this function as a macro.

When you run it, it will show any hidden Sheets in your Sheet, to save you having to do it 1-by-1.

Here’s a GIF showing how the hide and unhide macros work:

hide unhide sheets with macros

You can see how Sheet6, the active Sheet, is the only one that isn’t hidden when the first macro is run.

8.12 Resetting Filters

Ok, saving the best to last, this is one of my favorite macros! 🙂

I use filters on my data tables all the time, and find it mildly annoying that there’s no way to clear all your filters in one go. You have to manually reset each filter in turn (time consuming, and sometimes hard to see which columns have filters when you have really big datasets) OR you can completely remove the filter and re-add from the menu.

Let’s create a macro in Google Sheets to do that! Then we can be super efficient by running it with a single menu click or even better, from a shortcut.

Open your script editor (Tools > Script editor). Copy and paste the following code onto a new line:

// reset all filters for a data range on current Sheet
function resetFilter() {
  var sheet = SpreadsheetApp.getActiveSheet();
  var range = sheet.getDataRange();

Back in your Google Sheet, use the Macro Import option to import this function as a macro.

When you run it, it will remove and then re-add filters to your data range in one go.

Here’s a GIF showing the problem and macro solution:

Macro to reset filters

^ Back to Contents

9. Resources

If you’re interested in taking things further, check out the following resources for getting started with Apps Script:

Macro reference guide in Google Docs help

Macro reference guide in the Google Developer documentation

And if you want to really start digging into the Apps Script code, you’ll want to bookmark the Google documentation for the Spreadsheet Service.

Finally, all of this macro code is available here on GitHub.